Advertisement

Traditional Agriculture as Cultural Heritage. Forgotten Agroforestry Practices Recorded in Textual Part of Nineteenth Century Tax Records

  • Jana KrčmářováEmail author
  • Martin Arnold
Chapter
Part of the Environmental History book series (ENVHIS, volume 5)

Abstract

Agroforestry, integration of trees and agriculture, is an example of traditional European land use which became disadvantaged in the modernization. In the Czech Republic nowadays both agroforestry research and practices are virtually non-existent. Was agroforestry ever in use here? Analysis of Franciscan cadastre (1824–1845) revealed that it was present throughout the Bohemia province irrespective of landscape type, land fertility, altitude, population density and nationality (Krčmářová and Jeleček, in prep.). The following chapter will shed light on the main features of Bohemian agroforestry through content analysis of 166 cadastre evaluative protocols (Schätzung elaborate) of the aforementioned Franciscan cadastre. It will also discuss the interesting fact that even though the agroforestry tradition was clearly still alive it was not adequately documented in this record. Results showing how common rural practices were not recorded bring better understanding of the process of active forgetting of traditional agricultural knowledge during modernization.

Keywords

Agroforesty Franciscan cadastre Agricultural modernization Central Europe Nineteenth century Biocultural diversity 

References

  1. Alavalapati JRR, Nair PKR (2001) Socioeconomics and institutional perspectives of agroforestry. In: Palo M, Uusivuori J (eds) World forests, society and environment: markets and policies. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  2. Association for Temperate Agroforestry, AFTA (1997) The status, opportunities and needs for agroforestry in the United States. AFTA, ColumbiaGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennett B (1992) Plants and people of the Amazonian rain forests: the role of ethnobotany in sustainable development. Bioscience 42:599–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beranová M, Kubačák A (2010) Dějiny zemědělství v Čechách, na Moravě a ve Slezsku. KOSMAS, PragueGoogle Scholar
  5. Bičík I, Jeleček L, Kupková L, Perlín R (2001) Long-term trends in the land use changes in Czechia and their societal driving forces in 1845–2000. Agric Econ 47(7):290–295Google Scholar
  6. Bignal EM, McCracken DI (2000) The nature conservation value of European traditional farming systems. Environ Rev 8(3):149–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonfils M (2009) Fodder trees in temperate climate. L’université populaire de permaculture. Available on the internet, http://www.permaculturefrance.org/en/content/article/fodder-trees-temperate-climate-marc-bonfils. Accessed on 10 Oct 2014
  8. Bruchac MM (2014) Indigenous knowledge and traditional knowledge. In: Smith C (ed) Encyclopedia of global archaeology. Springer Science and Business Media, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Dahlstrom A, Rydin H, Borgegard SO (2009) Remnant habitats for grassland species in an abandoned Swedish agricultural landscape. Appl Veg Sci 13(3):305–314. doi: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2009.01068.x Google Scholar
  10. Eichhorn MP, Paris P, Herzog F, Incoll LD, Liagre F, Mantzanas K, Mayus M, Moreno G, Papanastasis VP, Pilbeam DJ, Pisanelli A, Dupraz C (2006) Silvoarable systems in Europe—past, present and future prospects. Agrofor Syst 67:29–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eldredge N (1995) Dominion. Henry Holt and Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  12. Etienne M (1996) Western European silvopastoral systems. INRA Editions, Science Update Series, ParisGoogle Scholar
  13. FOREST EUROPE, UNECE and FAO (2011) State of Europe’s Forests (SoEF). Status and trends in sustainable forest management in EuropeGoogle Scholar
  14. Geist H (2006) Agroforestry. In: Heist H (ed) Our earth’s changing land: an Encyclopedia of land-use and land-cover change. A-K. Greenwood Publishing Group, WestportGoogle Scholar
  15. Gillet F, Gallandat JD (1996) Wooded pastures of the Jura mountains. In: Etienne M (ed) Western European silvopastoral systems. INRA Editions, Science Update Series, ParisGoogle Scholar
  16. Green, BH, Vos W (2001) Managing old landscapes and making new ones. In: Green BH, Vos W (eds) Threatened landscapes: conserving cultural landscapes. Spon Press, London. ISBN: 041925630XGoogle Scholar
  17. Gustavsson R (2004) Exploring woodland design: designing with complexity and dynamics—woodland types, their dynamic architecture and establishment. In: Dunnet N, Hitchmough J (eds) The dynamic landscape: design, ecology and management of naturalistic urban planting. Spon Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. Hakansson NT (2009) A comparative survey of intensive cultivation systems in non-state social contexts. In: First world congress of environmental history, 4–8 Aug 2014, Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  19. Herzog F (1998) Streuobst: a traditional agroforestry system as a model for agroforestry development in temperate Europe. Agrofor Syst 42:61–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hodder K, Buckland P, Kirby K, Bullock J (2009) Can the pre-neolithic provide suitable models for re-wilding the landscape in Britain? Br Wildl 20(5, suppl.): 4–15Google Scholar
  21. ICSU (2002) Science and traditional knowledge. Report from the ICSU study group on science and traditional knowledge, March 2002, available on the internet. http://www.icsu.org/publications/reports-and-reviews/science-traditional-knowledge/Science-traditional-knowledge.pdf. Accessed on 9 Sept 2014
  22. Jeleček L (1985) Zemědělství a půdní fond v Čechách ve 2.polovině 19.století. Academia, PragueGoogle Scholar
  23. Krčmářová J, Jeleček L (in prep.) Agroforestry types, abundance and land-use context in 19th century BohemiaGoogle Scholar
  24. Kirby KJ, Thomas RC, Key RS, McLean IFG (1995) Pasture-woodland and its conservation in Britain. Biol J Linn Soc, 56(Suppl.):135–153 Google Scholar
  25. Krech S, McNeill JR, Merchant C (2004) Traditional ecological knowledge in Encyclopedia of world environmental history O-Z. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  26. Leaf J (2003) Green revolution. In: Krech S, McNeill JR, Merchant C (eds) Encyclopedia of world environmental history, Vol 1–3. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  27. Leube A (1992) Studien zu Wirtschaft und Siedlung bei den germanischen Stämmen im nördlichen Mitteleuropa während des 1.–5./6. Jh. u. Z. Ethnographisch Archäologische Zeitschrift 33:130–146Google Scholar
  28. Maffi L (2007) Biocultural diversity and sustainability. In: Pretty J, Ball A, Benton T, Guivant J, Lee D, Orr D, Pfeffer M, Ward H (eds) Sage handbook on environment and society. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Magyari EK, Chapman JC, Passmore DG, Allen JRM, Huntley JP, Huntley B (2010) Holocene persistence of wooded steppe in the Great Hungarian Plain. J Biogeogr 37(5):915–935. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2699.2009.02261.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Malanima P (2009) Pre-modern European economy. One thousand years (10th–19th century). Brill, Leiden and BostonGoogle Scholar
  31. McAdam JH, Burgess PJ, Graves AR, Riquero-Rodriguez A, Mosquera-Losada MR (2008) Classifications and functions of agroforestry systems in Europe. In: McAdam JH, Mosquera-Losada M, Riqueiro-Rodriquez A (eds) Agroforestry in Europe. Current status and future prospects. Springer Science and Business Media, DodrechtGoogle Scholar
  32. Mitlacher K, Poschlod P, Rosén E, Bakker JP (2009) Restoration of wooded meadows—a comparative analysis along a chronosequence on Öland (Sweden). Appl Veg Sci 5(1):63–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2002.tb00536.x Google Scholar
  33. Mitterauer M (1995) Peasant and non-peasant family forms in relation to the physical environment and the local economy. In: Rudolph RL (ed) The European peasant family and society. Liverpool University Press, LiverpoolGoogle Scholar
  34. Mosquera-Losada MR, McAdam JH, Romero-Franco R, Rigueiro-Rodríguez A (2008) Definitions and components of agroforestry practices in Europe. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losada MR (eds) Agroforestry in Europe, vol 6. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  35. Nair PKR (1993) An introduction to agroforestry. Kluwer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nair PKR (2008) Foreword. In: Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, McAdam J, Mosquera-Losada MR (eds) Agroforestry in Europe, vol 6. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  37. Plieninger T, Höchtl F, Theo S (2006) Traditional land-use and nature conservation in European rural landscapes. Environ Sci Policy 9:317–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rapport DJ (2007) Healthy ecosystems: an evolving paradigm. In: Pretty J, Ball A, Benton T, Guivant J, Lee D, Orr D, Pfeffer M, Ward H (eds) Sage handbook on environment and society. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  39. Richards JF (2003) The unending frontier: an environmental history of the early modern world. University of California Press, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  40. Rigueiro-Rodríguez A, Fernández-Núñez E, González-Hernández P, McAdam JH, and Mosquera-Losada MR (2008) Agroforestry systems in Europe: productive, ecological and social perspectives. In: Riqueiro-Rodriquez A, McAdam JH, Mosquera-Losada M (eds) Agroforestry in Europe. Current status and future prospects. Springer Science and Business Media, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  41. Rois-Diaz M, Mosquera-Losada MR, Rigueiro-Rodríguez A (2006) Biodiversity indicators on silvopastoralism across Europe. EFI technical report 21, Joensuu, Finland. http://www.efi.fi/attacment/f5d80ba3c1b89242106f2f97ae8e3894/561a5d970cda8e0c77274808a4a8c16a/TR21.pdf. Accessed on 10 Feb 2007
  42. Růžičková V, Čeněk M (2011) Historie chovatelství v Českých zemích z fotoarchivu Národního zemědělského muzea Praha. Profi Press, PragueGoogle Scholar
  43. Saláta D, Geiger B, Pető Á, Horváth S, Kenéz Á, Malatinszky Á (2013) On the frontier of natural and historical sciences: an integrated multi-proxy approach to assess the landscape history and evolution og Kisgombos Wood Pasture, Hungary. In: Circulating natures: water—food—energy: abstract book of the 7th Conference of the European society for environmental history, 21–24 Aug, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  44. Sinclair F (1999) A general classification of agroforestry practice. Agroforestry systems 46:161–180Google Scholar
  45. Skolimowski H (1994) The participatory mind: a new theory of knowledge and of the universe. Arkana, LondonGoogle Scholar
  46. Szabo P (2013) They did not know what they were doing: the realities of the transition to “scientific” forestry in the Czech Lands. In: Abstract book of ESEH 2013—circulating natures: water—food—energy; seventh biennial conference of the European society for environmental history, 21–24 Aug 2013, Munich, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  47. Van Dijk TA (1989) Structures of discourse and structures of power. In: Anderson JA (ed) Communication yearbook 12. Sage, Newbury ParkGoogle Scholar
  48. Varga A, Molnár Z, Saláta D, Molnár K, Bölöni J (2012) Biocultural changes of wood pastures in the last 250 years (Hungary, Romania-Transylvania). In: Book of abstracts IUFRO 9 conference, Bosznia-Hercegovina, Szarajevó 9–11 May 2012Google Scholar
  49. Vityi A, Marosvölgyi B, Szalai Z, Varga A (2014) Agroforestry research and development in Hungary. In: Book of abstracts of 2nd EURAF conference, 4–6 June 2014, Cottbus, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  50. Wulf M (2003) Forest policy in the EU and its influence on the plant diversity of woodlands. J Environ Manage 67:15–25CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Common Anthropology, Faculty of HumanitiesCharles UniversityPragueCzech Republic
  2. 2.Institut fűr Sächsische Geschichte und VolkskundeDresdenGermany

Personalised recommendations