Advertisement

Biocultural Diversity and Landscape in Europe: Framing the Issue

  • Mauro Agnoletti
  • Francesca Emanueli
Chapter
Part of the Environmental History book series (ENVHIS, volume 5)

Abstract

The International Conference on Biological and Cultural Diversity held in Montreal on June 2010, produced the Declaration on Biocultural Diversity and the UNESCO-SCBD Joint Programme on the linkages between cultural and biological diversity. The first meeting for the implementation of the Joint Programme was held in Florence (Italy) in April 2014. The scientific and policy dimensions of the linkages between cultural and biological diversity are of utmost importance in Europe where policies are devoted to the conservation of biodiversity and cultural heritage, but rarely focused on the result of interactions between nature and culture expressed by the rural landscape. The Florence Conference gathered scientists from different disciplines considering biocultural diversity as a good example of a topic requiring a transdisciplinary approach not always supported by university and research. This not only for an effective understanding of the biodiversity associated with landscapes shaped by the man, but also for the further development of the Joint Programme in terms of research and political implementation. The meeting was organized into a scientific part and a workshop for the drafting of a declaration on biocultural diversity. The declaration states that the European rural landscape (about 80 % of the European Union territory) is predominantly a biocultural multifunctional landscape, while the current state of biological and cultural diversity in Europe results from the combination of historical and ongoing environmental and land-use processes and cultural heritage. This book shows the existence and the importance of biocultural diversity associated to European landscape. This heritage should be studied, preserved and valorized by public policies.

Keywords

Biocultural diversity Biodiversity Transdisciplinarity Biodiversification 

References

  1. Agnoletti M (ed) (2013) Italian historical rural landscapes. Cultural values for the environment and rural development. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  2. Agnoletti M (2014) Rural landscape, nature conservation and culture: some notes on research trends and management approaches from a (southern) European perspective. Landscape Urban Plann 126:66–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Agnoletti M, Rotherham ID (2015) Landscape and biocultural diversity: an introduction. Biodivers Conserv. doi: 10.1007/s10531-015-1003-8
  4. Agnoletti M, Santoro A (2015) Cultural values and sustainable forest management: the case of Europe. J Res. doi: 10.1007/s10310-015-0500-7
  5. Bengtsson J, Angelstam P, Elmqvist T, Emanuelsson U, Folke C, Ihse M, Moberg F, Nyström M (2003) Reserves, resilience and dynamic landscapes. AMBIO 6:389–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benton TG, Vickery JA, Wilson JD (2003) Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? Trends Ecol Evol 18:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gabriel D, Roschewitz I, Tscharntke T, Thies C (2006) Beta diversity at different spatial scales: plant communities in organic and conventional agriculture. Ecol Appl 16:2011–2021CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Harper KA, MacDonald SE, Burton PJ, Chen J, Brosofske KD, Saunders SC, Euskirchen ES, Roberts D, Jaiteh MS, Esseen PA (2005) Edge influence on forest structure and composition in fragmented landscapes. Conserv Biol 19:768–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Holm P, Goodsite ME, Cloetingh S, Agnoletti M, Bedrich M, Lang DJ, Leemans R, Moeller JO, Buendía MP, Pohl W, Scholz RW, Sors A, Vanheusden B, Yusoff K, Zondervan R (2012) Collaboration between the natural, social and human sciences in Global Change research. Environ Sci Policy 28:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ingold T, Sanga G, Ortalli G (eds) (2003) Nature knowledge: ethnoscience, cognition and utility. Berghahn Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Kelemen Z, Kelemen R (2015) Are cultural values linked to genetics in Europe? Biodiv Conserv 24. doi: 10.1007/s10531-0150965-x
  12. Koohafkan P, Altieri MA (2011) Globally important agricultural heritage systems: a legacy for the future. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  13. Loh J, Harmon D (2014) Biocultural diversity: threatened species, endangered languages. WWF Netherlands, Zeist, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  14. Loreau M (2000) Are communities saturated? On the relationship between α, β and γ diversity. Ecol Lett 3:73–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Loreau M, Mouquet N, Gonzalez A (2010) Biodiversity as spatial insurance in heterogeneous landscapes. Nat Acad Sci 100(22):12765–12770CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Marull J, Tello E, Fullana N, Murray I, Jover G, Font C, Coll F, Domene E, Le V, Decolli T (2015) Long-term socio-ecological transition at different spatial scales: exploring the intermediate disturbance hypothesis in cultural landscapes (Mallorca, 1856-2012). Biodiv Conserv 24. doi: 10.1007/s10531-015-0969-6
  17. Parrotta J, Trosper RL (2012) Traditional forest-related knowledge: sustaining communities, ecosystems and biocultural diversity. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Piotti A, Leonardi S, Heuertz M, Buiteveld J, Geburek T, Gerber S, Kramer K, Vettori C, Giuseppe Vendramin G (2013) Within-population genetic structure in beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands characterized by different disturbance histories: does forest management simplify population substructure? PloS ONE 8(9). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0073391
  19. Roxburgh SH, Shea K, Wilson JB (2004) The intermediate disturbance hypothesis, patch dynamics and mechanisms of species coexistence. Ecol 85:359–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Tilman D (1994) Competition and biodiversity in spatially structured habitats. Ecol 1:2–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tscharntke T, Schmidt MH, Roschewitz I, Thies C (2005) Differential effects of landscape and management on diversity and density of ground-dwelling farmland spiders. J Appl Ecol 42:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. UNESCO, SCBD (2010) UNESCO–CBD Joint program between biological and cultural diversity. UNESCO, Paris. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/special-themes/biodiversity-initiative/biodiversity-culture/unesco-cbd-joint-programme/. Accessed 19 Nov 2015
  23. UNESCO, SCBD (2014) Florence declaration on the links between biological and cultural diversity. UNESCO, Florence. http://www.landscapeunifi.it/images/pdf/UNESCO-CBD_JP_Florence_Declaration.pdf. Accessed 19 Nov 2015
  24. Vogt K, Gordon J, Wargo J (1997) Ecosystem balancing science with management. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory for Landscape and Cultural Heritage, School of AgricultureUniversity of FlorenceFlorenceItaly

Personalised recommendations