Preliminary Study on Social Learning Using Mobile Technology Among Children with Autism

  • Iman Nur Nabila Ahmad AzahariEmail author
  • Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad
  • Ahmad Sobri Hashim
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9429)


Autism is a neurological disorder that influences the growth of the brain, resulting struggles in learning, communication, and social interaction. There is no cure for autism, however excellent educational practices and prompt intervention leads to rapid improvements. One of the excellent approaches is the Visual Approach, which uses pictures or other visual items to communicate with autistic children, as they are visually oriented. Moreover, the usage of technology is able to build their interest in learning activities. Major impairment of children with autism is their difficulty in social interaction. The objective of this paper is to discuss on the preliminary study of social learning among children with autism. The methodology used to conduct the preliminary study is through questionnaires to parents and teachers of children with autism, which the questions are to verify the literature reviews. The result of testing discovers that the real life conditions of the children are similar with the finding from the literature reviews.


Autism Social interaction skill Cognitive learning Visual approach Mobile technology 


  1. 1.
    Virginia Department of Education: Foundational Competencies. In: Guidelines for Educating Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders, pp. 6–12. Commonwealth of Virginia Department of Education (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schmidt, C., Heybyrne, B.: Expanding behavioral strategies and promoting success. Autism in the School-Aged Child, pp. 71–78. Autism Family Press, New York (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    ImgZine: How a mobile first strategy can increase employee engagement (2014)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zander, E.: An introduction to autism original title: Introduktion om autism. Stock. Ians sjukvardsomrade, pp. 1–4 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hill, E.L., Frith, U.: Understanding autism: insights from mind and brain. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 358, 281–289 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Notbohm, E.: Ten things. Ten Things Every Child with Autism Wishes You Knew, pp. 52–55. Future Horizons, Inc., Arlington (2012)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Milne, E., Griffiths, H.J.: Visual perception and visual dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder: a literature review. Br. Ir. Orthopt. J. 4, 15–20 (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geschwind, D.H., Levitt, P.: Autism spectrum disorders: developmental disconnection syndromes. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 17, 103–111 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fombonne, E., Zakarian, R., Bennett, A., Meng, L.: Pervasive developmental disorders in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: prevalence and links with immunizations. Pediatrics 118, 139–150 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Azizan, H.: The Burden of Autism (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Goin-Kochel, R.P., Myers, B.J.: Parental report of early autistic symptoms: differences in ages of detection and frequencies of characteristics among three autism spectrum disorders. J. Dev. Disabil. 11, 21–39 (2004)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Agency for Health Care Research and Quality (AHRQ): therapies for children with autism spectrum disorders. American Family Physician, vol. 85, p. 16 (2011)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alberta Learning: Characteristics Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders. In: Teaching Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders, pp. 9–20 (2003)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Millar, R., McCann, J., Scott, L., Doherty, K., McSorley, G., O’hara, C., Hunter, J.: Autistic spectrum disorders: a guide to classroom practice (2005)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD): Communication Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder. In: NIDCD Fact Sheet (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tager-Flusberg, H., Paul, R., Lord, C.: Language and communication in autism. Handb. Autism Pervasive Dev. Disord. 1, 335–364 (2005)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brereton, A.: Core features of autism: social skills. Act Now, pp. 1–3 (2011)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lewis, M.: Developing early communication skills in toddlers & young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and limited language. New York (2011)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Poliakova, N., Palkhivala, A., Johnson, J.: Social impairment in children with autism spectrum disorder (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hume, K., Loftin, R., Lantz, J.: Increasing independence in autism spectrum disorders: a review of three focused interventions. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 39, 1329–1338 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    English, A., Jones, B.: Autism spectrum disorders training policy and framework. West Midlands Regional Partnership (2006)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Family Center on Technology and Disability: Autism and the iPad: finding the therapy in consumer tech. technol. voices (2011)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Holden, J.T.: A guide to developing cognitive learning objectivesGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sansosti, F.J.: Teaching social skills to children with autism spectrum disorders using tiers of support: a guide for school-based professionals. Psychol. Sch. 47, 257–281 (2010)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mwakalinga, J.F.: A study of how teachers aim to influence development of social interaction for. Teach. Soc. Interact. Learn. With Autism (2012)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kirk, S., Gallagher, J., Coleman, M.R., Anastasiow, N.J.: Educating Exceptional Children. Cengage Learning, Canada (2011)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Churches, A.: Bloom’s taxonomy blooms digitally. Tech Learn. 196605124, 1–6 (2008)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Anderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R.: Bloom’s taxonomy of learning objectives: cognitive domain. Taxon. Learn. Teach. Assess. Revis. Bloom. Taxon. Educ. Object. 22, 1–2 (2001)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Abhiyan, S.S.: Training module on autism spectrum disordersGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Behavior Analyst Certification Board Inc. (“BACB”): Applied Behavior Analysis Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder: Practice Guidelines for Healthcare Funders and Managers., USA (2014)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Granpeesheh, D.: Applied behavior analytic interventions for children with autism: A description and review of treatment research u l t a h n yrig r perso p n e nl owd se o lt. Ann. Clin. Psychol. 21, 162–173 (2009)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bing, N. (Cincinnati C.H., Kovacs, E. (Columbia U., Sikora, D. (Oregon H.& S.U., Silverman, L. (University of R., Lantz, J. (Columbia U., Handen, B. (University of P., Rieger, R. (Columbia U., Mitchell, Z. (Columbia U., Srivorakiat, L. (Cincinnati C.H. for: Applied Behavior Analysis. Appl. Behav. Anal. A Parent’s Guid. 1–7 (2012)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Prizant, B.M., Wetherby, A.M., Rubin, E., Laurent, A.C.: The SCERTS model and evidence ‐ based practice (2010)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Deirdre, W.: Puzzling trough new ways to teach children with autism (2010)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Loring, W., Hamilton, M.: Visual supports and autism spectrum disorders (2011)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ministry Of Education Special Programs Branch: Teaching Students with Autism: A Resource Guide for Schools. British Columbia, Victoria BC (2000)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gray, C.: The New Social Story Book, Illustrated edn. Future Horizons Inc., Arlington (2000)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hodgdon, L.A.: Visual Strategies for Improving Communication: Practical Supports for Autism Spectrum Disorders, Revised and Updated edn. Quirk Roberts, Troy (2011)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Broun, L.T.: Teaching students with autistic spectrum disorders to read. Teach. Except. Child. 36, 36–40 (2004)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Murdock, L.C., Ganz, J., Crittendon, J.: Use of an iPad play story to increase play dialogue of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. J. Autism Dev. Disord. 43, 2174–2189 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bellini, S.: Autism social skills profile. In: Building Social Relationships: A Systematic Approach to Teaching Social Interaction Skills to Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Other Social Difficulties (2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iman Nur Nabila Ahmad Azahari
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wan Fatimah Wan Ahmad
    • 1
  • Ahmad Sobri Hashim
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer and Information SciencesUniversiti Teknologi PetronasBandar Seri IskandarMalaysia

Personalised recommendations