Advertisement

Diversity and Erosion in Genetic Resources of Spices

  • K. Nirmal BabuEmail author
  • E. V. D. Sastry
  • K. V. Saji
  • Minoo Divakaran
  • H. J. Akshitha
  • S. Aarthi
  • A. Sharon
  • P. N. Ravindran
  • K. V. Peter
Chapter
  • 779 Downloads
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 7)

Abstract

Genetic resources are global assets of inestimable value to human kind, which holds the key to increasing food security. The loss of variation in crops due to the modernization of agriculture has been described as genetic erosion. The current status of the genetic diversity and erosion in spice crops is discussed in this chapter. Human intervention into the natural habitats of wild and related species in centers of diversity, diseases, and pests plays an important role in the loss of older species and varieties. This is further complicated by climate change and reproductive behavior of crop species. The Genetic erosion of cultivated diversity is reflected in a modernization bottleneck in the diversity levels that occurred during the history of the crop. Two stages in this bottleneck are recognized: the initial replacement of landraces by modern cultivars and further trends in diversity as a consequence of modern breeding practices. The factors contributing to erosion is due to the enormous diversity in cultivated plants, population growth, deforestation, erosion, changing land use, and climate factors are major threats to the existing biodiversity of the region. Urbanization is increasing and agriculture is changing from subsistence based on highly market-driven farming. Although these changes have increased incomes of the populations of wild habitants to certain extent, not all of them are for the good. In particular, biodiversity is declining as a result of some of these changes. It is mandate to conserve the vanishing plant genetic resources and to understand better the linkages between agricultural and economic system that affect diversity and sustainable production. Genetic erosion may occur at three levels of integration: crop, variety, and allele. Thus, genetic erosion is reflected in the reduction of allelic richness in conjunction with events at variety level. This requires immediate efforts to understand and implement the effective multiplication and conservation strategies using both conventional and modern technologies to save the loss of the valuable genetic resources and preserve them for posterity. An important aspect is also to include genetic resource conservation as an important part in our social life.

Keywords

Genetic resources Genetic erosion Crop diversity Black pepper Spices Cardamom Ginger Turmeric Vanilla Cinnamon Nutmeg Clove Coriander Cumin Fennel Fenugreek GIS In situ conservation In vitro conservation Cryo preservation DNAbank Pollen bank 

References

  1. Adams RP (1997) Conservation of DNA: DNA banking. In: Callow, JA, Ford-Loyd BV, Newbury HJ (eds) Biotechnology and plant genetic resources: conservation and use. Biotechnology in agriculture series, no. 19. CAB International, pp 163–174Google Scholar
  2. Agarwal S, Sharma RK (1990) Variability in quality aspect of seed spices and future strategy. Indian Cocoa Arecanut Spices J 13:127–129Google Scholar
  3. Altieri MA, Merrick LC (1987) In-situ conservation of crop genetic resources through maintenance of traditional farming systems. Econ Bot 41:86–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Amin Gh (2012) Cumin. In: Peter KV (ed) Handbook of herbs and spices. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp 250–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bory S, Brown S, Duval M-F, Besse Pascale (2010) Evolutionary processes and diversification in the genus Vanilla. In: Odoux E, Grisoni M (eds) Vanilla. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 15–30Google Scholar
  6. Breese EL (1989) Regeneration and multiplication of germplasm resources in seed genebanks: the scientific background. International Board for plant Genetic resources (Currently Biodiversity International), RomeGoogle Scholar
  7. Brush SB (1991) A farmer-based approach to conserving crop germplasm. Econ Bot 39:310–325Google Scholar
  8. Cuvelier MR and Grisoni M (2010) Conservation and Movement of Vanilla Germplasm. In: Odoux E, Grisoni M (eds) Vanilla. CRC Press, BOca Raton, pp 31–41Google Scholar
  9. De Guzman CC, Zara RR (2012) Vanilla. In: Peter KV (ed) Handbook of herbs and spices. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp 547–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diederichsen A, Hammer Karl (2003) The infraspecific taxa of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.). Genet Resour Crop Evol 50:33–63 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gentry HS (1955) Apomixis in black pepper and jojoba. J. of Heredity 46:8 Google Scholar
  12. Haldankar PM, Nagvekar DP, Patil JL, Gunjate RT (1994) Varietal screening for yield and quality in cinnamon. Indian Cocoa Arecanut Spices J 28(3):79–81Google Scholar
  13. IPGRI (1996) Progamme activities, germplasm maintenance and use. In: Annual report, IPGRI, Rome, pp 56–65Google Scholar
  14. Iwananga M (1994) Role of International organisations in global genetic resource management. In: Proceedings of 27th international symposium on tropical agriculture research, Japan International Research Centre for Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Tsukuba, Japan, 2526, August 1993, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  15. Jaramillo MA, Manos PS (2001) Phylogeny and patterns of floral diversity in the genus Piper (Piperaceae). Am J Bot 88:706–716CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Kakani RK, Anwer MM (2012) Fenugreek. In: Peter KV (ed) Handbook of herbs and spices. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp 286–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Johny AK, Ravindran PN (2006) High yielding spices varieties developed in India. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Kallupurackal JA (eds) Advances in spices research Agrobios (India), pp 93–138Google Scholar
  18. Karla A, Agarwal KK, Gupta AK, Khanuja SPS (2006) Coriander as an essential oil crop. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Kallupurackal JA (eds) Advances in spices research (ed) Agrobios (India), pp 697–705Google Scholar
  19. Korikanthimath VS, Venugopal MN, Sudharshan MR, Prasath D (2006) Cardamom. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Kallupurackal JA (eds) Advances in spices research (ed) Agrobios (India), pp 315–364Google Scholar
  20. Krishnamoorthy B, Rema J (1994) Genetic resources of tree spices. In: Chadha KL, Rethinam P (eds) Advances in horticulture plantation and spice crops part 1, vol 9. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 169–192Google Scholar
  21. Krishnamoorthy B, Rema J, Zachariah JT, Abraham J, Gopalan A (1996) Navashree & Nithyashree-two new high yielding and high quality cinnamom (Cinnamonum verum) selections. J Spices Aromat Crops 18(3):79–81Google Scholar
  22. Lubinsky P (2003) Conservation of wild vanilla. In: Proceedings of Vanilla first international congress, Princeton, New Jersey, November 11–12Google Scholar
  23. Madhusoodanan KJ, Kuruvilla KM, Priyadarshan PM (1994) Genetic resources of cardamom. In: Chadha KL, Rethinam P (eds) Advances in horticulture vol 9 plantation and spice crops part 1. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 121–130Google Scholar
  24. Madhusoodanan KJ, Pradip Kumar K, Ravindran PN (2002) Botany, crop improvement and biotechnology of cardamom. In: Ravindran PN, Madhusoodanan KJ (eds) Cardamom—the genus Elettaria. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 11–68Google Scholar
  25. Malhotra SK, Vijay OP (2003) Plant genetic resources of seed spices in India. Seed Spices Newsl 3(1):1–4Google Scholar
  26. Manohar Rao A, Jagadeeshwar R, Sivaraman K (2006) Turmeric. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Kallupurackal JA (eds) Advances in spices research. Agrobios (India), pp 433–492Google Scholar
  27. Minoo D (2002) Seedling and somaclonal variation and their characterization in vanilla. Ph. D Thesis, University of Calicut, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  28. Minoo D, Nirmal Babu K, Peter KV (2006) Conservation of Vanilla species—in vitro. Sci Hortic 110:175–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mohanty DC, Panda BS (1994) Genetic resources of ginger. In: Chadha KL, Rethinam P (eds) Advances in horticulture vol 9 plantation and spice crops part 1. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 151–168Google Scholar
  30. Nirmal Babu K, Sasikumar B, Ratnambal MJ, Johnson GK, Ravindran PN (1993) Genetic variability in turmeric (Curcuma longa L.). Indian J Genet 53(1):91–93Google Scholar
  31. Nirmal Babu K, Geetha SP, Minoo D, Yamuna G, Praveen K, Ravindran PN, Peter KV (2007) Conservation of spices genetic resources through in vitro conservation and cryo- preservation. In: Peter KV, Abraham Z (eds) Biodiversity in horticultural crops, vol 1. Daya Publishing house, New Delhi, pp 210–233Google Scholar
  32. Nirmal Babu K, Sabu M, Shiva KN, Minoo D, Ravindran PN (2011a) Ginger. In: Singh Ram J (ed) Genetic resources, chromosome engineering and crop improvement, medicinal plants, vol 6. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 393–450Google Scholar
  33. Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Sabu M, Minoo D, Ravindran PN (2011b) Turmeric. In: Singh Ram J (ed) Genetic resources, chromosome engineering and crop improvement, medicinal plants, vol 6. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 451–511Google Scholar
  34. Nirmal Babu K, Yamuna G, Praveen K, Minoo D, Ravindran PN, Peter KV (2012) Cryopreservation of spices genetic resources. In Katkov II (ed) Current frontiers in cryobiology. ISBN 978-953-51-0191-8, In Tech-Open Access Publisher. (Croatia) pp 457–484Google Scholar
  35. Nurdjannah N, Bermawie N (2012) Cloves. In: Peter KV (ed) Handbook of herbs and spices. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp 197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Oka HI (1975) Consideration on the population size necessary for conservation of crop germplasms. In: Matsuo T (ed) Gene conservation JIBP synthesis, vol 5. Science Council of Japan, Tokyo, pp 57–63Google Scholar
  37. Parthasarathy VA, Prasath D (2012) Cardamom. In: Peter KV (ed) Handbook of herbs and spices. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp 131–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Parthasarathy U, Nirmal Babu K, Senthil Kumar R, Ashis GR, Mohan S, Parthasarathy VA (2013) Diversity of Indian Garcinia—a medicinally important spice crop in India. Acta Hortic (ISHS) 979:467–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Patel ID, Dashora SL and Agarwal S (2006) Cumin. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Kallupurackal JA (eds). Advances in spices research, Agrobios (India), pp 706–736Google Scholar
  40. Peter KV, Nirmal Babu K (2006) Genetic resources of spices. Indian J Plant Genet Resour 19(3):376–387Google Scholar
  41. Purseglove JW, Brown EG, Green CI, Robbins SRJ (1981) Spices. Tropical agricultural series, vol 1 and 2. Longman Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Rama Rao M, Rao DVR (1994) Genetic resources of turmeric. In: Chadha KL, Rethinam P (eds) Advances in horticulture vol 9 plantation and spice crops part 1. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 131–150Google Scholar
  43. Ravindran PN (ed) (2000) Black pepper, Piper nigrum. Harwood Academic Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  44. Ravindran PN, Kallupurackal JA (2012) Black pepper. In: Peter KV (ed) Handbook of herbs and spices. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp 86–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ravindran PN, Madhusoodanan KJ (eds) (2002) Cardamom—the genus Elettaria. Taylor and Francis, London, pp 330–340Google Scholar
  46. Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K (1994) Genetic resources of black pepper. In: Chadha KL, Rethinam P (eds) Advances in horticulture vol 9 plantation and spice crops part 1. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 99–120Google Scholar
  47. Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K (eds) (2005) Ginger—the genus Zingiber. CRC Press, Boca Raton 310Google Scholar
  48. Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Sasikumar B, Krishnamoorthy KS (2000) Botany and crop improvement of blackpepper. In: Ravindran PN (ed) Black pepper, Piper nigrum. Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, pp 23–142Google Scholar
  49. Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shylaja R (eds) (2004a) Cinnamon and cassia—the genus Cinnamomum. CRC Press, Boca Raton 361Google Scholar
  50. Ravindran PN, Shylaja M, Nirmal Babu K, Krishnamoorthy B (2004b) Botany and crop improvement of Cinnamon. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shailaja R (eds) Cinnamon and Cassia—the genus Cinnamomum. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 14–79Google Scholar
  51. Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN (2005a) Botany and crop improvement of Ginger. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K (eds) Ginger—the genus Zingiber. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 15–86Google Scholar
  52. Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Peter KV, Abraham Z, Tyagi RK (2005b) Spices. In Dhillon BS, Tyagi RK, Saxena S, Randhawa GJ (eds) Plant genetic resources: horticultural crops. Narosa Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 190–227Google Scholar
  53. Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN (2006) Genetic resources of spices and their conservation. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Kallupurackal JA (eds) Advances in spices research, Agrobios (India), pp 63–92Google Scholar
  54. Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Sivaraman K (eds) (2007a) Turmeric—The genus Curcuma. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 504Google Scholar
  55. Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN (2007b) Botany and crop improvement of turmeric. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Sivaraman K (eds) Turmeric—the genus Curcuma. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 15–70Google Scholar
  56. Sabu M, Skinner D (2005) Other economically important Zingiber Species. In Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K (eds) Ginger—the genus Zingiber. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 533–545, 15–86Google Scholar
  57. Saji KV (2006) Taxonomic and genetic characterization of black pepper and related species. Ph. D Thesis, University of Calicut, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  58. Sastry EVD (2009) Status of genetic resources management in seed spices in India. Research needs for seed spices: issues and strategies. 2009. In: Anwar MM, Sharma YK, Saxena SN, Kakani RK, Lal G, Malhotra SK (eds) Lead papers presented in national brain storming workshop held at nationation Research Centre in Seed Spices, Ajmer on 21st–22nd March 2009, pp 17–42Google Scholar
  59. Sharma RK (1994) Genetic resources of seed spices. In: Chadha KL, Rethinam P (eds) Advances in horticulture, plantation crops and spices, vol 9. Malhotra Publishing House, New Delhi, pp 193–207Google Scholar
  60. Sharma MM, Sharma RK (2012) Coriander. In: Peter KV (ed) Handbook of herbs and spices. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp 216–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Singhania DL, Singh D, Raje RS (2005a) Coriander. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Kallupurackal JA (eds) Advances in spices research, Agrobios (India), pp 677–696Google Scholar
  62. Singhania DL, Singh D, Raje RS (2005b) Fennel. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Kallupurackal JA (eds) Advances in spices research, Agrobios (India), Jodhpur, pp 737–755Google Scholar
  63. Singhania DL, Raje RS, Singh Dhirendra, Rajput SS (2005c) Fenugreek. In: Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, Shiva KN, Kallupurackal JA (eds) Advances in spices research. AGROBIOS (India), Jodhpur, pp 757–783Google Scholar
  64. Skornickova J, Rehse T, Sabu M (2007) Other economically important Curcuma. In: Ravindran, PN, Nirmal Babu K, Sivaraman K (eds) Turmeric—the genus Curcuma. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 451–468Google Scholar
  65. Thomas J, Kuruvilla KM (2012) Cinnamon. In: Peter KV (ed) Handbook of herbs and spices. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp 182–194Google Scholar
  66. Trelease W, Yuncker TG (1950) The piperaceae of northern South America, vol 1. University of Illinois, USAGoogle Scholar
  67. Tyagi RK, Abraham Z, Latha M, Velayudhan KC, Ravindran PN, Nirmal Babu K, George JK, Anuradha A, Dhilon BS (2004) Conservation of spices germplasm in india. Indian J Plant Genet Resour 17(3):163–174Google Scholar
  68. Valsala PA (2012) Ginger. In: Peter KV (ed) Handbook of herbs and spices. Woodhead Publishing Limited, Sawston, pp 319–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Velayudhan KC, Muralidharan VK, Amalraj VA, Gautam PL, Mandal S, Kumar D (1999) Curcuma genetic resources. Scientific monograph, 4th edn. National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, p 149Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Nirmal Babu
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. V. D. Sastry
    • 2
  • K. V. Saji
    • 3
  • Minoo Divakaran
    • 4
  • H. J. Akshitha
    • 1
  • S. Aarthi
    • 3
  • A. Sharon
    • 5
  • P. N. Ravindran
    • 1
  • K. V. Peter
    • 6
  1. 1.All India Coordinated Research Project on SpicesIndian Institute of Spices ResearchKozhikodeIndia
  2. 2.SKN College of AgricultureJobnerIndia
  3. 3.Indian Institute of Spices ResearchKozhikodeIndia
  4. 4.Providence Women’s CollegeKozhikodeIndia
  5. 5.IISRMadikeriIndia
  6. 6.World Noni Research FoundationChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations