Advertisement

Genetic Diversity and Erosion—A Global Perspective

  • Imke ThormannEmail author
  • Johannes M. M. Engels
Chapter
Part of the Sustainable Development and Biodiversity book series (SDEB, volume 7)

Abstract

Biodiversity is continually declining, according to global biodiversity indicators (Butchart et al. in Science 328:1164–1168, 2010). Population trends, habitat extent, habitat condition, and composition of species communities—indicators of the state of diversity—are declining, while at the same time pressures on biodiversity posed by resource consumption, invasive alien species, pollution, overexploitation, and climate change are increasing. The rate of current loss of species is reported to be 100–1000 times the natural background rate (Chivian and Berstein in Sustaining life on earth. How human health depends on biodiversity. Oxford University Press, New York, 2008, Chivian and Berstein in How our health depends on biodiversity. Center for Health and the global environment. Harvard medical school, Boston, 2010; Pimm et al. in Science 344, 2014). Dramatic though that figure is, it underestimates the full loss of diversity because it ignores loss at both genetic and population level (Myers in Seeds and sovereignty. The use and control of plant genetic resources. Duke University Press, Durham, 1988; Mendenhall et al. in Biol Conserv 151:32–34, 2012). One of the first publications alerting the world about the losses of genetic diversity within species, later termed “genetic erosion,” was published in 1914 (Baur in Die Bedeutung der primitiven Kulturrassen und der wilden Verwandten unserer Kulturpflanzen fuer die Pflanzenzuechtung; Jahrbuch Deutsche Landwirt, 1914). The first concern about loss of diversity regarded agriculturally important species, as these are of direct and daily use to people. One hundred years later, genetic erosion is addressed at the global level in international agendas that set targets and propose actions to reduce the loss of genetic diversity, such as the Global Plan of Action (GPA) for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (PGRFA) of the FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (CGRFA) and the Aichi biodiversity targets of the Convention on Biodiversity (CBD). The fact that genetic erosion today is addressed at global level implies that the crucial importance of genetic diversity for sustaining life on earth has been recognized. Strategies and actions to reduce the ongoing loss of genetic diversity are now in place. However, these measures have been found only partially successful as only few significant reductions in rates of decline were observed (Butchart et al. in Science 328:1164–1168, 2010), and global estimates of the extent of genetic erosion are still lacking. This chapter focuses on the importance of genetic diversity in PGRFA, how diversity of PGRFA is affected by genetic erosion, development of activities undertaken by international bodies to address genetic erosion, options to improve knowledge about the underlying processes that lead to genetic erosion, and the need for systematic monitoring of genetic diversity to better safeguard, conserve, and use PGRFA.

Keywords

Genetic erosion Genetic diversity PGRFA Germplasm collections Monitoring 

References

  1. Akimoto M, Shimamoto Y, Morishima H (1999) The extinction of genetic resources of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon Griff: a case study in Thailand. Genet Resour Crop Evol 46:419–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alsos IG, Ehrich D, Thuiller W et al (2012) Genetic consequences of climate change for northern plants. Proc R Soc Lond B: Biol Sci 279:2042–2051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arunachalam V (1999) Genetic erosion in plant genetic resources and early warning system: a diagnosis dilating genetic conservation. In: Serwinski J, Faberova I (eds) Proceedings of the technical meeting on the methodology of the FAO world information and early warning system on plant genetic resources, held at the Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic 21–23 June 1999. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  4. Barry MB, Pham JL, Béavogui S et al (2008) Diachronic (1979–2003) analysis of rice genetic diversity in Guinea did not reveal genetic erosion. Genet Resour Crop Evol 55(5):723–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baur E (1914) Die Bedeutung der primitiven Kulturrassen und der wilden Verwandten unserer Kulturpflanzen fuer die Pflanzenzuechtung; Jahrbuch Deutsche Landwirt. Gesell. (Saatzuchtabteilung)Google Scholar
  6. Bellon MR (1996) The dynamics of crop infraspecific diversity: a conceptual framework at the farmer level. Econ Bot 50:26–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bennett E (1968) Record of the FAO/IBP technical conference on the exploration, utilization and conservation of plant genetic resources, Rome, Italy 18–26 September 1967. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  8. Bertoldo JG, Coimbra JLM, Guidolin AF et al (2014) Agronomic potential of genebank landrace elite accessions for common bean genetic breeding. Sci Agricola 71(2):120–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bezançon G, Pham JL, Deu M et al (2009) Changes in the diversity and geographic distribution of cultivated millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in Niger between 1976 and 2003. Genet Resour Crop Evol 56(2):223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bilz M, Kell SP, Maxted N, Lansdown RV (2011) European red list of vascular plants. Publications Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  11. Bioversity International (2014) Strategic action plan to strengthen conservation and use of Mesoamerican plant genetic resources in adapting agriculture to climate change (SAPM) 2014–2024. Bioversity International, Cali, ColombiaGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonneuil C, Goffaux R, Bonnin I et al (2012) A new integrative indicator to assess crop genetic diversity. Ecol Ind 23:280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Börner A, Chebotar S, Korzun V (2000) Molecular characterization of the genetic integrity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm after long-term maintenance. Theor Appl Genet 100:494–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown AHD (2008) Indicators of genetic diversity, genetic erosion and genetic vulnerability for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Thematic background study. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  15. Brush SB (1995) In situ conservation of landraces in centres of crop diversity. Crop Sci 35:346–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brush SB (1999) Genetic erosion of crop populations in centers of diversity: a revision. In: Serwinski J, Faberova I (eds) Proceedings of the technical meeting on the methodology of the FAO world information and early warning system on plant genetic resources, held at the Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic 21–23 June 1999. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  17. Brush SB (2004) Farmers’ bounty: locating crop diversity in the contemporary world. Yale University Press, New Haven (CT)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brush SB, Meng E (1998) Farmers’ valuation and conservation of crop genetic resources. Genet Resour Crop Evol 45:139–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brütting C, Hensen I, Wesche K (2013) Ex situ cultivation affects genetic structure and diversity in arable plants. Plant Biol 15(3):505–513PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Butchart SHM et al (2010) Global biodiversity: indicators of recent declines. Science 328:1164–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Calinger KM, Queenborough S, Curtis PS (2013) Herbarium specimens reveal the footprint of climate change on flowering trends across north-central North America. Ecol Lett 16:1037–1044PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cavatassi R, Lipper L, Hopkins J (2006) The role of crop genetic diversity in coping with agricultural production shocks: insights from Eastern Ethiopia. Agricultural development economics division, working paper no. 06–17. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  23. Ceccarelli S, Grando S (2000) Barley landraces from the fertile crescent: a lesson for plant breeders. In: Brush S (ed) Genes in the field: on-farm conservation of crop diversity. Lewis Publishers USA, International Development Research Centre Canada and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute ItalyGoogle Scholar
  24. CGIAR (1972) The collection, evaluation and conservation of plant genetic resources. Report of TAC Ad Hoc working group held in Beltsville, USA—20–25 March 1972. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  25. Chambers KJ, Brush SB, Grote MN, Gepts P (2007) Describing maize (Zea mays L.) landrace persistence in the Bajío of Mexico: a survey of 1940s and 1950s collection Locations. Econ Bot 61(1):60–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chaudhuri SK (2005) Genetic erosion of agrobiodiversity in India and intellectual property rights: interplay and some key issues. Patentmatics 5(6):1–10Google Scholar
  27. Chebotar S, Röder MS, Korzun V et al (2003) Molecular studies on genetic integrity of open-pollinating species rye (Secale cereale L.) after long-term genebank maintenance. Theor Appl Genet 107(8):1469–1476PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chessa C, Nieddu G (2005) Analysis of diversity in the fruit tree genetic resources from a Mediterranean island. Genet Resour Crop Evol 52:267–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chivian E, Bernstein E (eds) (2008) Sustaining life on earth. How human health depends on biodiversity. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Chivian E, Bernstein E (eds) (2010) How our health depends on biodiversity. Center for Health and the global environment. Harvard medical school, BostonGoogle Scholar
  31. Choudhary G, Ranjitkumar N, Surapaneni M et al (2013) Molecular genetic diversity of major indian rice cultivars over decadal periods. PLoS ONE 8(6):e66197PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Christiansen MJ, Andersen SB, Ortiz R (2002) Diversity changes in an intensively bred wheat germplasm during the 20th century. Mol Breed 9:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cieslarova J, Smykal P, Dockalova Z et al (2011) Molecular evidence of genetic diversity changes in pea (Pisum sativum L.) germplasm after long-term maintenance. Genet Resour Crop Evol 58:439–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cieslarova J, Hybl M, Griga M, Smykal P (2012) Molecular analysis of temporal genetic structuring in pea (Pisum sativum L.) cultivars bred in the Czech Republic and in former Czechoslovakia since the mid-20th century. Czech J Genet Plant Breed 48(2):61–73Google Scholar
  35. CIMMYT (2007) Global strategy for the ex situ conservation with enhanced access to wheat, rye and triticale. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico. Available from: http://www.croptrust.org/documents/cropstrategies/Wheat%20Strategy.pdf. Accessed 7 Aug 2014
  36. Davari A, Khoshbakht K, Ghalegolab Behbahani A, Veisi H (2013) A qualitative assessment of diversity and factors leading to genetic erosion of vegetables: a case study of Varamin (Iran). Int J AgriSci 3(3):198–212Google Scholar
  37. De Oliveira LO, Martins ER (2002) A quantitative assessment of genetic erosion in ipecac (Psychotria ipecacuanha). Genet Resour Crop Evol 49:607–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Del Rio AH, Bamberg JB, Huaman Z, Salas A, Vega SE (1997) Assessing changes in the genetic diversity of potato gene banks. 2. In situ vs ex situ. Theor Appl Genet 95:199–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Deu M, Sagnard F, Chantereau J et al (2008) Niger-wide assessment of in situ sorghum genetic diversity with microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 116:903–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Deu M, Sagnard F, Chantereau J et al (2010) Spatio-temporal dynamics of genetic diversity in Sorghum bicolor in Niger. Theor Appl Genet 120(7):1301–1313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Donini P, Law JR, Koebner RMD, Reeves JC, Cooke RJ (2000) Temporal trends in the diversity of UK wheat. Theor Appl Genet 100(6):912–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dosmann M, Groover A (2012) The importance of living botanical collections for plant biology and the “next generation” of evo-devo research. Frontiers in plant science, vol 3 article 137. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2012.00137
  43. Dulloo ME, Fiorino E, Thormann I (2015) Research on conservation and use of crop wild relatives. In: Yadav S, Redden R, Maxted N, Dulloo ME, Guarino L, Smith P (eds) Crop wild relatives and climate change (1st ed). Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  44. Engels JMM (2001) Home gardens—a genetic resource perspective. In: Watson JW, Eyzaguirre PB (eds) Proceedings of the second international home garden workshop. Bioversity international, Rome, Italy, pp 3–9Google Scholar
  45. Engels JMM, Visser L (eds) (2003) A guide to effective management of germplasm collections handbooks for genebanks no. 6. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, RomeGoogle Scholar
  46. Enßlin A, Sandner TM, Matthies D (2011) Consequences of ex situ cultivation of plants: genetic diversity, fitness and adaptation of the monocarpic Cynoglossum officinale L. in botanic gardens. Biol Conserv 144(1):272–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Esquinas-Alcazar JT (1993) Plant genetic resources. In: Hayward MD, Bosemark NO, Romagosa I (eds) Plant breeding: principles and prospects, Chapman & Hall, London, pp 33–51Google Scholar
  48. Eticha F, Sinebo W, Grausgruber H (2010) On-farm diversity and characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces in the highlands of West Shewa Ethiopia. Ethnobotany Res Appl 8:025–034CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. FAO (1998) The state of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  50. FAO (2010) The second report on the state of the world’s plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  51. FAO (2012) Second global plan of action for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  52. FAO (2013) Genebank standards for plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  53. FAO (2014) Concept note on global networking on in situ conservation and on-farm management of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. CGRFA/WG-PGR-7/14/inf-3. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  54. Feld CK, Martins da Silva P, Sousa JP et al (2009) Indicators of biodiversity and ecosystem services: a synthesis across ecosystems and spatial scales. Oikos 118:1862–1871CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Fernando V, Thomas MP (1978) An assessment of the ecological implications of new varieties of seeds. Am J Environ Stud 12:289–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Figliuolo G, Mazzeo M, Greco I (2007) Temporal variation of diversity in Italian durum wheat germplasm. Genet Resour Crop Evol 54:615–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ford-Lloyd BV, Brar D, Khush GS, Jackson MT, Virk PS (2009) Genetic erosion over time of rice landrace agrobiodiversity. Plant Genet Resour: Charact Utilization 7(02):163–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Fowler C, Mooney P (1990) Shattering food, politics, and the loss of genetic diversity. The University of Arizona Press, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  59. Frankel OH (1970) Genetic conservation in perspective. In: Frankel OH, Bennett E (eds) Genetic resources in plants—their exploration and conservation, IPB handbook no. 11. International Biological Programme, LondonGoogle Scholar
  60. Frankel OH (1975) Genetic resources survey as a basis for exploration. In: Frankel OH, Hawkes JG (eds) Crop genetic resources for today and tomorrow. International biological programme 2. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  61. Frankel OH, Bennett E (1970) Genetic resources—introduction. In: Frankel OH, Bennett E (eds) Genetic resources in plants—their exploration and conservation, IPB handbook no. 11. International Biological Programme, London, pp 7–18Google Scholar
  62. Frankel OH, Hawkes JG (1975) Genetic resources—the past ten years and the next. In: Frankel OH, Hawkes JG (eds) Crop genetic resources for today and tomorrow. International biological programme 2. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  63. Frankham R, Ballou JD, Briscoe DA (2010) Introduction to conservation genetics, 2nd edn. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  64. Franks SJ, Sim S, Weis AE (2007) Rapid evolution of flowering time by an annual plant in response to a climate fluctuation. PNAS 104:1278–1282PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Franks SJ, Avise JC, Bradshaw WE et al (2008) The resurrection initiative: storing ancestral genotypes to capture evolution in action. Bioscience 58:870–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Fu YB, Peterson GW, Richards KW et al (2005) Allelic reduction and genetic shift in the Canadian hard red spring wheat germplasm released from 1845 to 2004. Theor Appl Genet 110:1505–1516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fu YB, Peterson GW, Yu Ju-K, Gao L, Jia J, Richards KW (2006) Impact of plant breeding on genetic diversity of the Canadian hard red spring wheat germplasm as revealed by EST-derived SSR markers. Theor Appl Genet 112:1239–1247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Gallagher RV, Hughes L, Leishman MR (2009) Phenological trends among Australian alpine species: using herbarium records to identify climate-change indicators. Aust J Bot 57:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Galluzzi G, Eyzaguirre P, Negri V (2010) Home gardens: neglected hotspots of agro-biodiversity and cultural diversity. Biodivers Conserv 19:3635–3654CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Gao L-z (2003) The conservation of Chinese rice biodiversity: genetic erosion, ethnobotany and prospects. Genet Resour Crop Evol 50:17–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gómez-Campo C (2006) Erosion of genetic resources within seed genebanks: the role of seed containers. Seed Sci Res 16(04):291–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Goodrich WJ (1987) Monitoring genetic erosion: detection and assessment. IBPGR report no. 87/33. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, RomeGoogle Scholar
  73. Guarino L (1995) Assessing the threat of genetic erosion. In Guarino L, Ramanatha Rao V, Reid R (eds) Collecting plant genetic diversity: technical guidelines. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI), Rome, Italy; plant production and protection division, FAO, Rome, Italy; World Conservation Union (IUCN), Gland, Switzerland; CABI Publishing, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  74. Guarino L, Chadja H, Mokkadem A (1991) Wheat collecting in southern Algeria. Short communication. Rachis Newsl 1991:23–25Google Scholar
  75. Hagenblad J, Bostrom E, Jygards L, Leino MW (2014) Genetic diversity in local cultivars of garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) conserved ‘on farm’ and in historical collections. Genet Resour Crop Evol 61:413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hajjar R, Hodgkin T (2007) The use of wild relatives in crop improvement: a survey of developments over the last 20 years. Euphytica 156:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hajjar R, Jarvis DI, Gemmill-Herren B (2008) The utility of crop genetic diversity in maintaining ecosystem services. Agric Ecosyst Environ 123:261–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hammer K, Laghetti G (2005) Genetic erosion—examples from Italy. Genet Resour Crop Evol 52:629–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Hammer K, Knuepffer H, Xhuveli L, Perrino P (1996) Estimating genetic erosion in landraces—two case studies. Genet Resour Crop Evol 43:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Harlan JR (1970) Evolution of cultivated plants. In: Frankel OH, Bennett E (eds) Genetic resources in plants—IBP handbook no. 11. International Biological Programme, London, pp 19–32Google Scholar
  81. Harlan JR (1975) Our vanishing genetic resources. Science 188:618–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Harlan HV, Martini ML (1936) Problems and results in barley breeding. USDA yearbook of agriculture 1936:303–346Google Scholar
  83. Hawkes JG (1983) The diversity of crop plants. Harvard University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Heal G, Walker B, Levin S et al (2004) Genetic diversity and interdependent crop choices in agriculture. Resour Energy Econ 26(2):175–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hellin J, Bellon MR, Hearne SJ (2014) Maize landraces and adaptation to climate change in Mexico. J Crop Improv 28(4):484–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Heywood VH, Dulloo ME (2006) In situ conservation of wild plant species—a critical global review of good practices. IPGRI technical bulletin no. 11. IPGRI, RomeGoogle Scholar
  87. Heywood VH, Kell SP, Maxted N (2008) Towards a global strategy for the conservation and use of crop wild relatives. In: Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV, Kell SP, Iriondo JM, Dulloo E, Turok J (eds) Crop wild relative conservation and use. CAB International, Wallingford, pp 653–662Google Scholar
  88. Hirano R, Jatoi SA, Kawase M, Kikuchi A, Watanabe N (2009) Consequences of ex situ conservation on the genetic integrity of germplasm held at different gene banks: a case study of bread wheat collected in Pakistan. Crop Sci 49:2160–2166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Hoban S, Arntzen JA, Bruford MW et al (2014) Comparative evaluation of potential indicators and temporal sampling protocols for monitoring genetic erosion. Evol Appl 7(9):984–998PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hoyt E (1988) Conserving the wild relatives of crops. IBPGR, IUCN, WWF, Rome and GlandGoogle Scholar
  91. Huang X-Q, Wolf M, Ganal MW, Orford S, Koebner RMD, Roeder MS (2007) Did modern plant breeding lead to genetic erosion in European winter wheat varieties? Crop Sci 47:343–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hughes CE, Govindarajulu R, Robertson A et al (2007) Serendipitous backyard hybridization and the origin of crops. Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:14389–14394PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hunter D, Heywood VH (eds) (2011) Crop wild relatives: a manual of in situ conservation. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  94. Hutchinson CF, Weiss E (1999) Remote sensing contribution to an early warning system for genetic erosion of agricultural crops. In: Serwinski J, Faberova I (eds) Proceedings of the technical meeting on the methodology of the FAO world information and early warning system on plant genetic resources, held at the Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic 21–23 June 1999. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  95. Hysing S-C, Saell T, Nyborn H et al (2008) Temporal diversity changes among 198 Nordic bread wheat landraces and cultivars detected by retrotransposon-based S-SAP analysis. Plant Genet Resour: Charact Utilization 6(2):113–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. INIBAP (2006) Global conservation strategy for Musa (Banana and Plantain). International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  97. Jarvis A, Ferguson ME, Williams DE et al (2003) Biogeography of wild Arachis: assessing conservation status and setting future priorities. Crop Sci 43:1100–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Jarvis A, Lane A, Hijmans RJ (2008a) The effect of climate change on crop wild relatives. Agric Ecosyst Environ 126:12–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Jarvis DI, Brown AHD, Cuong HP et al (2008b) A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop-variety diversity maintained by farming communities. PNAS 105(14):5326–5331PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Jarvis DI, Hodgkin T, Sthapit BR, Fadda C, Lopez-Noriega I (2011) An heuristic framework for identifying multiple ways of supporting the conservation and use of traditional crop varieties within the agricultural production system. Crit Rev Plant Sci 30(1–2):125–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Jarvis DI, Hodgkin T, Brown AHD et al (2016) Crop genetic diversity in the field and on the farm; principles and applications in research practices. Yale University PressGoogle Scholar
  102. Jorge MA, Claessens G, Hanson J et al (2010) Knowledge sharing on best practices for managing crop genebanks. Agric Inf Worldwide 3(2):101–106Google Scholar
  103. Keiša A, Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV (2008) The assessment of biodiversity loss over time: wild legumes in Syria. Genet Resour Crop Evol 55(4):603–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Khan IA, Awan FS, Ahmad A, Fu YB, Iqbal A (2005) Genetic diversity of Pakistan wheat germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 52:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Khlestkina EK, Huang XQ, Quenum FJ-B, Chebotar S, Roeder MS, Boerner A (2004) Genetic diversity in cultivated plants—loss or stability? Theor Appl Genet 108:1466–1472PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Khoury C, Laliberte B, Guarino L (2010) Trends in ex situ conservation of plant genetic resources: a review of global crop and regional conservation strategies. Genet Resour Crop Evol 57:625–639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kiambi D, Ford-Lloyd B, Jackson MT, Guarino L, Maxted N, Newbury HJ (2005) Collection of wild rice (Oryza L.) in east and southern Africa in response to genetic erosion. Plant Genetic Resour Newsl 142:10–20Google Scholar
  108. Kiang YT, Antonovics J, Wu L (1977) The extinction of wild rice (0ryza perennis formosana) in Taiwan. J Asia Ecol 1:1–9Google Scholar
  109. Koebner RMD, Donini P, Reeves JC, Cooke RJ, Law JR (2003) Temporal flux in the morphological and molecular diversity of UK barley. Theor Appl Genet 106:550–558PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kolodinska-Brantestam A (2004) A century of breeding—is genetic erosion a reality? Temporal diversity changes in Nordic and Baltic barley. Dissertation, Swedish University of Agricultural SciencesGoogle Scholar
  111. Kombo GR, Dansi A, Loko LY et al (2012) Diversity of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) cultivars and its management in the department of Bouenza in the Republic of Congo. Genet Resour Crop Evol 59(8):1789–1803CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Kushalappa AC, Eskes AB (eds) (1989) Coffee rust: epidemiology, resistance and management. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0849368998Google Scholar
  113. Kwak M, Gepts P (2009) Structure of genetic diversity in the two major genepools of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, Fabaceae). Theor Appl Genet 118:979–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Laghetti G, Fiorentin G, Hammer K, Pignone D (2009) On the trail of the last autochthonous Italian einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) and emmer (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) populations: a mission impossible? Genet Resour Crop Evol 56(8):1163–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Laikre L (2010) Genetic diversity is overlooked in international conservation policy implementation. Conserv Genet 11:349–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Lauterbach D, Burkart M, Gemeinholzer B (2012) Rapid genetic differentiation between ex situ and their in situ source populations an example of the endangered Silene otites. Bot J Linn Soc 168:64–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Le Clerc V, Bazante F, Baril C, Guiard J, Zhang D (2005) Assessing temporal change in genetic diversity of maize varieties using microsatellite markers. Theor Appl Genet 110:294–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Le Clerc V, Cadot V, Canadas M, Lallemand J, Guerin D, Boulineau F (2006) Indicators to assess temporal genetic diversity in the French Catalogue: no losses for maize and peas. Theor Appl Genet 113:1197–1209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Li Z, Wu N, Gao X, Wu Y, Oli KP (2013) Species-level phonological responses to ‘global warming’ as evidenced by herbarium collections in the Tibetan autonomous region. Biodivers Cons 22:141–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lohar DP, Rana RB (1998) The dichotomy of crop diversity management issues in subsistence and commercial hill farming systems in Nepal. In: Tej Pratap, Sthapit B (eds.) Managing agrobiodiversity-farmers’ changing perspectives and institutional responses in the Hindu-Kush-Himalayan region. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD), Kathmandu, Nepal and International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI) Rome, pp 183–197Google Scholar
  121. Louette D, Smale M (2000) Farmers’ seed selection practices and traditional maize varieties in Cuzalapa, Mexico. Euphytica 113:25–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Malysheva-Otto L, Ganal MW, Law JR, Reeves JC, Roeder MS (2007) Temporal trends of genetic diversity in European barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Mol Breed 20:309–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Manifesto MM, Schlatter AR, Hopp HE, Sua´rez EY, Dubcovsky J (2001) Quantitative evaluation of genetic diversity in wheat germplasm using molecular markers. Crop Sci 41:682–690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Mantegazza R, Biloni M, Grassi F et al (2008) Temporal trends of variation in Italian rice germplasm over the past two centuries revealed by AFLP and SSR markers. Crop Sci 48:1832–1840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Marshall DR (1989) Crop genetic resources: current and emerging issues. In: Brown AHD, Clegg MT, Kahler AL, Weir BS (eds) Plant populations, genetics, breeding, and genetic resources. Sinauer Associates Inc, USAGoogle Scholar
  126. Martos V, Royo C, Rharrabti Y, Garcia del Moral LF (2005) Using AFLPs to determine phylogenetic relationships and genetic erosion in durum wheat cultivars released in Italy and Spain throughout the 20th century. Field Crops Res 91:107–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Maxted N, Guarino L (2006) Genetic erosion and genetic pollution of crop wild relatives In: Ford-Lloyd BV, Dias SR, Bettencourt E (eds) Genetic erosion and pollution assessment methodologies. Proceedings of PGR forum workshop 5, Terceira Island, autonomous region of the azores, Portugal, 8–11 September 2004. Published on behalf of the European Crop Wild Relative Diversity Assessment and Conservation Forum, by Bioversity International, Rome, pp 35–46Google Scholar
  128. Maxted N, Kell SP (2009) Establishment of a global network for the in situ conservation of crop wild relatives: status and needs. FAO Commission on Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture, Rome 266 ppGoogle Scholar
  129. Maxted N, Guarino L, Myer L, Chiwona EA (2002) Towards a methodology for on-farm conservation of plant genetic resources. Genet Resour Crop Evol 49:31–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV, Jury SL, Kell SP, Scholten MA (2006) Towards a definition of a crop wild relative. Biodivers Conserv 15:2673–2685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Maxted N, Dulloo ME, Ford-Lloyd BV et al (2012) Agrobiodiversity conservation: securing the diversity of crop wild relatives and landraces. CABI Publishing, WallingfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Maxted N, Magos Brehm J, Kell S (2013) Resource book for preparation of national conservation plans for crop wild relatives and landraces. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  133. McCouch S, Baute GJ, Bradeen J et al (2013) Feeding the future. Nature 499:23–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Megersa G (2014) Genetic erosion of barley in North Shewa Zone of Oromiya Region, Ethiopia. Int J Biodivers Conserv 6(3):280–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Mekbib F (2008) Genetic erosion of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) in the centre of diversity, Ethiopia. Genet Resour Crop Evol 55:351–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Mendenhall CD, Daily GC, Ehrlich PR (2012) Improving estimates of biodiversity loss. Biol Conserv 151:32–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Miller-Rushing AJ, Primack RB, Primack D, Mukunda S (2006) Photographs and herbarium specimens as tools to document phonological changes in response to global warming. Am J Bot 93:1667–1674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Mir RR, Kumar J, Balyan HS, Gupta PK (2012) A study of genetic diversity among Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars released during last 100 years. Genet Resour Crop Evol 59:717–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Mora A, Zapata Ferrufino B, Hunter D, et al (2009) Libro Rojo de parientes silvestres de cultivos de Bolivia. Plural editors,. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua Viceministerio de Medio Ambiente, Biodiversidad y Cambios Climáticos La Paz, Bolivia, Bioversity International, RomeGoogle Scholar
  140. Morishima H, Oka HI (1995) Genetic erosion in wild and cultivated rice species. Rice genetics newsletter 12:168–170. National Institute of Genetics, JapanGoogle Scholar
  141. Myers N (1988) Draining the gene pool: the causes, course and consequences of genetic erosion. In: Kloppenburg JR Jr (ed) Seeds and sovereignty. The use and control of plant genetic resources. Duke University Press, DurhamGoogle Scholar
  142. NAS (1972) Genetic vulnerability of major crops. National Academy of Sciences, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  143. Negri V (2003) Landraces in central Italy: where and why they are conserved and perspectives for their on-farm conservation. Genet Resour Crop Evol 50:871–885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Nersting LG, Andersen SB, von Bothmer R, Gullord M, Jorgensen RB (2006) Morphological and molecular diversity of Nordic oat through one hundred years of breedin. Euphytica 150:327–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Nevo E, Fu YB, Pavlicek T, Khalifa S, Tavasi M, Beiles A (2012) Evolution of wild cereals during 28 years of global warming in Israel. PNAS 109(9):3412–3415PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Newton AC, Akar T, Baresel JP et al (2010) Cereal landraces for sustainable agriculture. A review. Agron Sustain Dev 30:237–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Ochoa CM (1975) Potato collecting expeditions in Chile, Bolivia and Peru, and the genetic erosion of indigenous cultivars. In: Frankel OH, Hawkes JG (eds) Crop genetic resources for today and tomorrow. International Biological Programme 2. Cambridge University Press, pp 167–173Google Scholar
  148. Ortega R (1997) Peruvian in situ conservation of Andean crops. In: Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV, Hawkes JG (eds) Plant genetic conservation: the in situ approach. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 302–314Google Scholar
  149. Ortega-Paczka O (1999) Genetic erosion in Mexico. In: Serwinski J, Faberova I (eds) Proceedings of the technical meeting on the methodology of the FAO world information and early warning system on plant genetic resources, held at the Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic 21–23 June 1999. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  150. Padulosi S, Bergamini N, Lawrence T, eds (2012) On farm conservation of neglected and underutilized species: status, trends and novel approaches to cope with climate change. In: Proceedings of an international conference, Frankfurt, 14–16 June, 2011. Bioversity International, RomeGoogle Scholar
  151. Perales H, Brush SB, Qualset CO (2003) Landraces of maize in Central Mexico: an altitudinal transect. Econ Bot 57:7–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Pereira HM, Ferrier S, Walters M et al (2013) Essential biodiversity variables. Science 339:277–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Peroni N, Hanazaki N (2002) Current and lost diversity of cultivated varieties, especially cassava, under swidden cultivation systems in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Agric Ecosyst Environ 92:171–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Piergiovanni AR (2000) The evolution of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) cultivation in Italy and its effects on the survival of autochthonous populations. Genet Resour Crop Evol 47:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Pimm SL, Jenkins CN, Abell R et al (2014) The biodiversity of species and their rates of extinction, distribution, and protection. Science 344(6187). doi: 10.1126/science.1246752
  156. Primack D, Imbres C, Primack RB, Miller-Rushing AJ, Tredici PD (2004) Herbarium specimens demonstrate earlier flowering times in response to warming in Boston. Am J Bot 91:1260–1264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Qi Y, Zhang D, Wang M et al (2006) Genetic diversity of rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) in China and the temporal trends in recent fifty years. Chin Sci Bull 51(6):681–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Qualset CO, Damania AB, Zanatta ACA, Brush SB (1997) Locally based crop plant conservation. In: Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV, Hawkes JG (eds) Plant genetic conservation: the in situ approach. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 160–175Google Scholar
  159. Rao NK, Hanson J, Dulloo ME, Ghosh K, Nowell D, Larinde M (2006) Seed handling in genebanks. Handbook for genebanks no. 8. Bioversity International, RomeGoogle Scholar
  160. Reif J, Hamrit S, Heckenberger M et al (2005) Trends in genetic diversity among European maize cultivars and their parental components during the past 50 years. Theor Appl Genet 111:838–845PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Rocha F, Bettencourt E, Gaspar C (2008) Genetic erosion assessment through the re-collecting of crop germplasm. Counties of Arcos de Valdevez, Melgaço, Montalegre, Ponte da Barca and Terras de Bouro (Portugal). Plant Genet Resour Newsl 154:6–13Google Scholar
  162. Rogers DL (2004) Genetic erosion no longer just an agricultural issue. Native Plants J 5(2):112–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Roussel V, Koenig J, Bechert M, Balfourier F (2004) Molecular diversity in French bread wheat accessions related to temporal trends and breeding programmes. Theor Appl Genet 108:920–930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Roussel V, Leisova L, Exbrayat F, Stehno Z, Balfourier F (2005) SSR allelic diversity changes in 480 European bread wheat varieties released from 1840 to 2000. Theor Appl Genet 111:162–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rucinska A, Puchalski J (2011) Comparative molecular studies on the genetic diversity of an ex situ garden collection and its source population of the critically endangered polish endemic plant Cochlearia polonica E. Froehlich. Biodivers Conserv 20:401–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Scarascia-Mugnozza GT, Perrino P (2002) The history of ex situ conservation and use of plant genetic resources. In: Brown AHD, Jackson MT, Engels JMM, Ramanatha Roa V (eds) Managing plant genetic diversity. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  167. Serwinski J, Faberova I (eds) (1999) Proceedings of the technical meeting on the methodology of the FAO world information and early warning system on plant genetic resources, held at the Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic 21–23 June 1999. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  168. SGRP (2010) Global public goods project phase 2—final report. System-wide genetic resources programme (SGRP). Bioversity International, RomeGoogle Scholar
  169. Sharrock S (2012) Global strategy for plant conservation. A guide to the GSPC, all the targets, objectives and facts. Botanic Gardens Conservation International, UKGoogle Scholar
  170. Steele KA, Gyawali S, Joshi KD, Shrestha P, Sthapit BR, Witcombe JR (2009) Has the introduction of modern rice varieties changed rice genetic diversity in a high-altitude region of Nepal? Field Crops Res 113:24–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Steiner AM, Ruckenbauer P, Goecke E (1997) Maintenance in genebanks, a case study: contaminations observed in the Nürnberg oats of 1831. Genet Resour Crop Evol 44:533–538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Synnevag G, Huvio T, Sidibe Y, Kanoute A (1999) Farmers’ indicators for decline and loss of local varieties from traditional farming systems. A case study from northern Mali. In: Serwinski J, Faberova I (eds) Proceedings of the technical meeting on the methodology of the FAO world information and early warning system on plant genetic resources, held at the Research Institute of Crop Production, Prague, Czech Republic 21–23 June 1999. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  173. Tapia CB, Estrella JE (2001) Genetic erosion quantification in ullucus (Ullucus tuberosus Caldas), oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) and mashua (Tropaeolum tuberosum R.&P.) in agroecosystems of the provinces of Canar, Chimborazo and Tungurahua—Ecuador. Abstract presented at the international symposium “Managing biodiversity in agricultural ecosystems. Montreal, Canada, 8–10 September 2001Google Scholar
  174. Teklu Y, Hammer K (2006) Farmers’ perception and genetic erosion of Ethiopian tetraploid wheat landraces. Genet Resour Crop Evol 53:1099–1113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Thormann I, Dulloo ME (2015) Assessing temporal variation in crop wild relative genetic diversity based on past collecting missions. Acta HorticGoogle Scholar
  176. Thormann I, Gaisberger H, Mattei F, Snook L, Arnaud E (2012) Digitization and online availability of original collecting mission data to improve data quality and enhance the conservation and use of plant genetic resources. Genet Resour Crop Evol 59(5):635–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Thormann I, Yang Qiu, Allender C et al (2013) Development of best practices for ex situ conservation of radish germplasm in the context of the crop genebank knowledge base. Genet Resour Crop Evol 60(4):1251–1262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Thormann I, Fiorino E, Halewood M, Engels JMM (2015) Plant genetic resources collections and associated information as baseline resource for genetic diversity studies—an assessment of the IBPGR supported collections. Genet Resour Crop Evol. doi: 10.1007/s10722-015-0231-9
  179. Thrupp LA (1998) Cultivating diversity: agrobiodiversity and food security. World Resources Institute, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  180. Tittensor DP, Walpole M, Hill SLL et al (2014) A mid-term analysis of progress toward international biodiversity targets. Science 346(6206):241–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Tsegaye B, Berg T (2007) Genetic erosion of Ethiopian tetraploid wheat landraces in Eastern Shewa, Central Ethiopia. Genet Resour Crop Evol 54(4):715–726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Van de Wouw M, van Hintum T, Kik C, van Treuren R, Visser B (2010) Genetic diversity trends in twentieth century crop cultivars: a meta analysis. Theor Appl Genet 120:1241–1252PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. van Heerwaarden J, Hellin J, Visser RF, van Eeuwijk FA (2009) Estimating maize genetic erosion in modernized smallholder agriculture. Theor Appl Genet 119(5):875–888PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Vellend M, Brown CD, Kharouba HM, Mccune JI, Myers-Smith IH (2013) Historical ecology: using unconventional data sources to test for effects of global environmental change. Am J Bot 100(7):1294–1305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Vigouroux Y, Mariac C, De Mita S et al (2011) Selection for earlier flowering crop associated with climatic variations in the Sahel. PLoS ONE 6(5):1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Wandeler P, Hoeck PEA, Keller KF (2007) Back to the future: museum specimens in population genetics. Trends Ecol Evol 22(12):634–642PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Wei X, Yan X, Yu H, Wang Y, Xu Q, Tank S (2009) Temporal changes in SSR allelic diversity of major rice cultivars in China. J Genet Genomics 36:363–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Weltzien E, Rattunde HFW, Clerget B, Siart S, Toure A, Sagnard F (2006) Sorghum diversity and adaptation to drought in West Africa. In: Jarvis D, Mar I, Sears L (eds) Enhancing the use of crop genetic diversity to manage abiotic stress in agricultural production systems 23–27 May, Budapest, Hungary. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, pp 31–38Google Scholar
  189. Whitney LD, Bowers FAI, Takahashi M (1939) Taro varieties in Hawaii. Hawaii Agri Exp Station Bull 84:1–86Google Scholar
  190. Wilkes HG, Wilkes KK (1972) The green revolution. Environment 14:32–39Google Scholar
  191. Wood D, Lenne JM (1997) The conservation of agrobiodiversity on-farm: questioning the emerging paradigm. Biodivers Conserv 6:106–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Worede M (1997) Ethiopian in situ conservation. In: Maxted N, Ford-Lloyd BV, Hawkes JG (eds) Plant genetic conservation: the in situ approach. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 290–301Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bioversity InternationalMaccareseItaly

Personalised recommendations