Modelling Factors Influencing Digital Readiness: A Case of Teachers in Ghana’s Basic School System

  • James Sunney QuaicoeEmail author
  • Kai Pata
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9412)


This study explored the factors involved in developing teachers’ digital readiness towards ICT integration in basic schools. A survey with teachers in the Western Ghana was carried out; a sample (N = 85) teachers from 17 schools selected from the urban, peri-urban and rural areas participated. We used Valsiner’s Zone of Free Movement (ZFM) and Zone of Promoted Action (ZPA) to model the factors in which teachers’ digital readiness is formed as the final level of Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). In our hypothetical model, ZFM comprised factors related with surrounding ICT environment in schools, and teachers’ culturally defined predispositions related to ICT use and issues; ZPA an intervention-related factor projected teacher actions within ZFM to facilitate learning in the range of ZPD. The hypothesised model was evaluated with SEM-Path analysis – using regression analysis. The final path model indicated that the ZFM factors related with ICT environment in schools and the culturally defined predispositions related to ICT use; constrained the intervention-related ZPA factor that in turn has impact on teachers’ digital activities. In addition, ZFM factors directly influenced at what level of digital knowledge, -application, -skills and -confidence teachers arrived, and what their projections in using ICT were in the final stage of ZPD.


Teacher digital readiness ICT integration ZPD ZFM ZPA 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Digital Technologies (Centre for Educational Technology)Tallinn UniversityTallinnEstonia

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