Diagnostic and Therapeutic Roles of Implantable Devices in the Human Electrical Machine: A Quick Primer

  • Vinod Kumar Khanna


Innovations in electronic engineering have flagged the march towards realization of implantable biomedical microsystems. These microsystems are capable of interfacing with interior body parts. By such interfacing, they can monitor, manipulate, and control the functions of body parts in the anticipated manner. Distinguished precedents of such systems are the cardiac pacemakers, deep brain stimulators, those used for controlling respiratory and bladder functions, cochlear and retinal prosthesis, and many others prescribed for sicknesses that are unmanageable by medication. Headway in implantable electronics received a boost only after the invention of the bipolar transistor in 1948 and its market availability in the early 1950s. The miniaturization and low power obligation of this device rendered possible workable telemetry systems for measurement of biological parameters. Human body is an intricate electrical machine. Its operational flaws can be tweaked by inserting electronic devices. Besides remedying such faults through delivery of electrical impulses, these devices also help in an organized, coordinated release of medication to the body at a predetermined rate. In addition, they assist in defining vital strictures and in sensing abnormal variations to enlighten about the health state of the body.


Medical device Invasive device Noninvasive device Passive device Active device Bioelectricity Membrane potential Action potential 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vinod Kumar Khanna
    • 1
  1. 1.CSIR-Central Electronics Engineering Research InstitutePilaniIndia

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