Hydrodynamic Modelling on Transport, Dispersion and Deposition of Suspended Particulate Matter in Pangani Estuary, Tanzania

  • Siajali PambaEmail author
  • Yohana W. Shaghude
  • Alfred N. N. Muzuka
Part of the Estuaries of the World book series (EOTW)


The present study was formulated with the aim of using MIKE 21 software in studying the hydrodynamic regime of the Pangani estuary. Water level, river discharge and wind drag force were used as hydrodynamic forcing factors during the model set up. The data set for the model (i.e. water level, tidal current winds and river discharge) were collected in Pangani estuary during the field campaigns conducted from December 2010 and August 2011. The results indicated that the tidal currents were relatively sluggish (0–0.05 m/s) in the beginning of model simulation. The ebb currents were established from 2 to 7 hours; originating from the inner part of the estuary tended to flow radially (Eastwards, Northwards and Southwards) soon after reaching the river mouth. The radial flow pattern of the ebb tidal currents seemed to be influenced by the funnel shape of the estuary. The flood tidal currents were established after 7 hours. The flood tidal phase started earlier on the southern part of the river mouth compared to the northern and tended to become more intensive on the northern part than on the southern part of the estuary. The currents pattern observed were influencing the transport and deposition of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). The maximum deposition of SPM preferentially occurred about 3 km north and south of the estuary mouth and the minimum deposition occurred in the middle of the estuary mouth. The deposition of SPM was highest during the southeast monsoon relative to the northeast monsoon. Approximately 872.6 kg/m2/year of SPM were brought into the estuary. This implies that, in the long term, the SPM deposition along the river mouth will significantly change the Pangani hydrodynamic regime, from its present condition. Also infilling of navigational channel and alteration of the ecosystems is imminent. Urgent actions are required to minimize the generation of SPM within the Pangani river basin.


Hydrodynamic modelling Suspended particulate matter Pangani estuary 



We are grateful to anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments that enabled this paper to be as it is. We are also grateful to the divers and technicians of the Institute of Marine Sciences for their assistance in fieldwork. This work described was funded by Western Indian Ocean Regional Initiative in Marine Sciences and Education (WIO-RISE)


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Siajali Pamba
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yohana W. Shaghude
    • 2
  • Alfred N. N. Muzuka
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Aquatic Sciences and Fisheries Technology, College of Agricultural Sciences and Fisheries TechnologyUniversity of Dar es SalaamDar es SalaamTanzania
  2. 2.Institute of Marine SciencesUniversity of Dar es SalaamZanzibarTanzania
  3. 3.Nelson Mandela African Institute of Science and TechnologyArushaTanzania

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