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Intraoperative Findings in Peripheral Nerve Pathologies


For many years, intraoperative B-mode ultrasound has been part of the clinical routine in cranial and spinal neurosurgery, mainly for localization and resection control [3, 4, 21, 24]. In peripheral nerve surgery, intraoperative application of ultrasound did not play any role so far, primarily because of the technical demands warranted to visualize peripheral nerves and peripheral nerve pathologies. Nowadays, as a consequence of an ongoing software and transducer development, high-frequency, high-resolution ultrasound of peripheral nerves from its first description by Fornage [9] became a highly versatile tool in the diagnostic work-up of peripheral nerve pathologies: entrapment, trauma, tumor, and neuropathies and apart from that is now routinely used during nerve surgery [13, 22].


  • Peripheral Nerve
  • Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor
  • Nerve Segment
  • Traumatic Nerve
  • Nerve Surgery

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Correspondence to Ralph W. Koenig .

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Koenig, R.W., Coburger, J., Pedro, M.T. (2016). Intraoperative Findings in Peripheral Nerve Pathologies. In: Prada, F., Solbiati, L., Martegani, A., DiMeco, F. (eds) Intraoperative Ultrasound (IOUS) in Neurosurgery. Springer, Cham.

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