Eastern James Bay and the Cree

  • Marie-Jeanne S. Royer
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Climate Studies book series (BRIEFSCLIMATE)


The Eastern James Bay, over the last 50 years, has been subject to large scale developments which have caused many modifications to its physical environment. In conjunction with those changes, the people living there have experienced important transformations to their way of life. It is our opinion that anyone wishing to study the impacts of climate change in the region must first be aware and understand these changes and their influence on the local environment and inhabitants. This understanding becomes crucial in the context of a study wishing to identify observed environmental changes by the local communities.

The following chapter explains the recent history of the region, changes to its borders, and the legal agreements and conventions that govern the area. This will be followed by a description of the large scale projects that have taken place and a review of the area’s physical environment. It then moves on to the region’s local inhabitants, the Cree. This section will detail their communities, their traditional activities and the changes to their traditional way of life. Armed with this knowledge, it will be easier for the reader and researcher to understand how the combination of human development, societal change and climate change have all been combined in the region to produce the results observed in Chap.  4.


Eastern James Bay Cree Eeyou Istchee Nord-du-Québec JBNQA 


  1. AADNC – Affaires autochtones et Développement du Nord Canada (2009) La Convention de la Baie James et du Nord québécois et la Convention du Nord-Est québécois – Rapport annuel 2005–2006 et 2006–2007. Ministère des Affaires indiennes et du Nord canadien et interlocuteur fédéral auprès des Métis et des Indiens non inscrits, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  2. Andrews JT (1970) Present and postglacial rates of uplift for glaciated northern and eastern North America derived from postglacial uplift curves. Can J Earth Sci 7:703–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arquillière S, Filion L, Gajewski K, Cloutier C (1990) A dendroecological analysis of eastern larch (Larix laricina) in Subarctic Quebec. Can J For Res 20:1312–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asselin H (2011) Plan Nord. Les autochtones laissés en plan. Rech amérindiennes au Québec 41(1):37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bender B, Morris B (1991) Twenty years of history, evolution and social change in gatherer-hunter studies. In: Ingold T, Riches D, Woodburn J (eds) Hunters and gatherers, volume 1: history, evolution and social change. Berg Publishers Limited, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Bergeron Y, Gauthier S, Flannigan M, Kafka V (2004) Fire regimes at the transition between mixedwood and coniferous Boreal forest in Northwestern Quebec. Ecology 85(7):1916–1932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berkes F (1990) Native subsistence fisheries: a synthesis of harvest studies in Canada. Arctic 43(1):35–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berkes F (1998) Indigenous knowledge and resource management systems in the Canadian Subarctic. In: Berkes F, Folke C (eds) Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  9. Berkes F (2008) Sacred ecology, 2nd edn. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Berkes F, Farkas CS (1978) Eastern James Bay Cree Indians: changing patterns of wild food use and nutrition. Ecol Food Nutr 7(3):155–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berkes F, Mackenzie M (1978) Cree fish names from Eastern James Bay, Quebec. Arctic 31(4):489–495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bider JR (1976) The distribution and abundance of terrestrial vertebrates of the James and Hudson Bay Regions of Québec. Cah Géogr du Québec 20(50):393–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bosum A (2001) Community dispersal and organization: the case of Oujé-Bougoumou. In: Scott C (ed) Aboriginal autonomy and development in Northern Quebec and Labrador. UBC Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  14. Callaghan TV, Crawford RMM, Eronen M, Hofgaard A, Payette S, Rees GW, Skre O, Sveinbjörnsson B, Vlassova TK, Werkman BR (2002) The dynamics of the Tundra-Taiga boundary: an overview and suggested coordinated and integrated approach to research. Ambio, Spec Rep 12:3–5Google Scholar
  15. Campagan S, Lévesque B, Anassour-Laouan-Sidi E, Côté S, Serhir B, Ward BJ, Libman MD, Drebot MA, Makowski K, Andonova M, Ndao M, Dewailly É (2011) Seroprevalence of 10 zoonotic infection in 2 Canadian Cree communities. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 70:191–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Canobbio É (2009) Géopolitique d’une ambition inuite. Le Québec face à son destin nordique. Septentrion, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  17. Carlson HM (2008) Home is the hunter: the James Bay Cree and their land. UBC Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  18. CCQF – Conseil Cris-Québec sur la foresterie (consulted 2012) Mission/mandat.
  19. CCRCCN – Comité chargé du réexamen de la commission Crie-Naskapie (1991) Report of the inquiry into the Cree-Naskapi Commission. CanadaGoogle Scholar
  20. Chaplier M (2006) Le conflit à la baie James: Pour une anthropologie de la nature dans un contexte dynamique. Civilisations 55:103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. CIFQ – Conseil de l’industrie forestière du Québec (2011) Portraits forestiers régionaux: 10- Nord-du-Québec, Québec: 2011, Quebec.
  22. CNEI – Cree Nations of Eeyou Istchee (2011) Cree vision of plan nord. CanadaGoogle Scholar
  23. Collette V (2005) Rétention linguistique et changement social à Mistissini. Etudes Inuit Stud 29(1–2):207–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. CRBJ – Conférence régionale de la Baie-James (2011) Portrait de la Jamésie.
  25. CREABJNQ – Comité de recherche sur l’exploitation par les autochtones de la Baie-James et du Nord québécois (1982) Terre d’abondance. Étude sur l’exploitation de la faune par les Cris de la Baie-James, de 1972–1979. QuébecGoogle Scholar
  26. CTA – Cree Trappers’ Association (2009) Traditional Eeyou hunting law. Eastmain Canada, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  27. CTA – Cree Trappers’ Association (July 2010) Traditional Eeyou hunting law: frequently asked questions. Eastmain Canada, unpublishedGoogle Scholar
  28. CTACC – Cree Trappers Association’s Committee of Chisasibi (1989) Cree Trappers speak. James Bay Cree Cultural Education Center, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  29. CWGPN – Cree Working Group on the Plan Nord (2011) Cree vision of Plan Nord. Grand Council of the Cree/Cree Regional Authority, NemaskaGoogle Scholar
  30. Delormier T, Kuhnlein HV (1999) Dietary characteristics of Eastern James Bay Cree women. Arctic 52(2):182–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Desbiens C (2004a) Producing North and South: a political geography of hydro development in Québec. Can Geogr 48(2):101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Desbiens C (2004b) Nation to nation: defining new structures of development in Northern Quebec. Econ Geogr 80(4):351–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Desbiens C (2007) ‘Water all around, you cannot even drink’: the scaling of water in James Bay/Eeyou Istchee. Area 39(3):259–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ducruc J-P, Zarnovican R, Gerardin V, Jurdant M (1976) Les régions écologiques du territoire de la baie de James: caractéristiques dominantes de leur couvert végétal. Cah Géogr du Québec 20(50):365–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Duhaime G (dir) (2001) Le Nord: habitants et mutations. Les Presses de l’Université Laval, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  36. Feit HA (1982) The future of hunters within nation-states: anthropology and the James Bay Cree. In: Leacock EB, Lee R (eds) Politics and history in band societies. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  37. Feit HA (1991) Gifts of the land: hunting territories, guaranteed incomes and the construction of social relations in james Bay Cree society. Senri Ethnol Stud 30:223–268Google Scholar
  38. Feit HA (1995) Hunting and the quest for power: the James Bay Cree and Whitemen in the 20th century. In: Morrison BR, Wilson RC (eds) Native peoples: the Canadian experience, 2nd edn. McCelland & Stewart Publishers, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  39. Feit HA, Beaulieu R (2001) Voices from a disappearing forest: government, corporate, and Cree participatory forestry management practices. In: Scott C (ed) Aboriginal autonomy and development in Northern Quebec and Labrador. UBC Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  40. Fraser DJ, Coon T, Prince MR, Dion R, Bernatchez L (2006) Integrating traditional and evolutionary knowledge in biodiversity conservation: a population level case study. Ecol Soc 11(2):art4Google Scholar
  41. Froschauer K (1999) White gold: hydroelectric power in Canada. UBC Press, VancouverGoogle Scholar
  42. Goudreau É (2003) Les autochtones et le Québec. In: Weidmann-Koop M-C (ed) Le Québec aujourd’hui: identité, société et culture. Les Presses de l’Université Laval, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  43. Gougeon N (2010) Co-management of the migratory caribou herds in Northern Québec: the perspective of the hunting, fishing and trapping coordinating committee. Rangifer, Special Issue (20):39–45Google Scholar
  44. Gouvernement du Québec (27 mai 2011) Accord-Cadre entre les Cris d’Eeyou Istchee et le gouvernement du Québec sur la gouvernance dans le territoire d’Eeyou Istchee Baie-James. QuébecGoogle Scholar
  45. Hamelin L-E (1998) L’entièreté du Québec: le cas du Nord. Cah Géogr du Québec 42(115):95–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hare KF (1950) Climate and zonal divisions of the Boreal forest formation in Eastern Canada. Geogr Rev 40(4):615–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hernandez-Henriquez MA, Mlynowski TJ, Dery SJ (2010) Reconstructing the natural streamflow of a regulated river: a case study of La Grande Rivière, Quebec, Canada (Case Study). Can Water Res J 35(3):301–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hogue C, Bolduc A, Larouche D (1979) Québec, un siècle d’électricité. Libre Expression, MontréalGoogle Scholar
  49. Hornig JF (ed) (1999) Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project. McGill-Queen’s University Press, QuebecGoogle Scholar
  50. Hydro-Québec (2003) La Grande Hydroelectric Complex: fish communities. QuebecGoogle Scholar
  51. Hydro-Québec Production (2004) Centrale de l’Eastmain-1-A et dérivation Rupert: Étude d’impact sur l’environnement – Rapport de synthèse, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  52. Hydro-Québec (2010) Rapport Annuel 2010: grands équipements, Québec CanadaGoogle Scholar
  53. Knight R (1968) Ecological factors in changing economy and social organization among the Rupert House Cree. Anthropology Papers, National Museum of Canada, Department of the Secretary of State, Ottawa CanadaGoogle Scholar
  54. Kuhnlein HV, Chan HM (2000) Environment and contaminants in traditional food systems of northern indigenous peoples. Annu Rev Nutr 20:595–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kuhnlein H, Erasmus B, Creed-Knashiro H, Englberger L, Okeke C, Turner N, Allen L, Bhattacharjee L (2006) Indigenous peoples’ food systems for health: finding interventions that work. Public Health Nutr 9(8):1013–1019CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. La Rusic IE (dir) (1979) La négociation d’un mode de vie: la structure administrative découlant de la Convention de la Baie James: l’expérience initiale des Cris. ssDcc Inc, MontréalGoogle Scholar
  57. Lafortune V, Filion L, Hétu B (2006) Impacts of Holocene climatic variations on alluvial fan activity below snowpatches in Subarctic Québec. Geomorphology 76:375–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Larose F, Bourque J, Terrisse B, Kurtness J (2001) La résilience scolaire comme indice d’acculturation chez les autochtones: bilan de recherches en milieux innus. Rev Sci de l’éducation 27(1):151–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Laverdière C, Guimont P (1981) Géographie physique de la Grande Ile, Littoral québécois de la Mer d’Hudson. Société de développement de la Baie James. Aménagement Régional, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  60. Le Blanc K (2009) Évaluation de la participation des Cris dans la procédure d’évaluation environnementale de la Convention de la Baie James et du Nord québécois. Mémoire présenté à la Faculté des études supérieures en vue de l’obtention du grade de Maîtres ès sciences (M.Sc) en géographie. Département de géographie, Faculté des Arts et des Sciences Université de Montréal, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  61. Leclair J (2012) L’effet structurant des droits reconnus aux peuples autochtones sur le débat entourant le Plan Nord. Soc Sci Res Netw.
  62. Leduc C, Coonishish J, Haddad P, Cuerrier A (2006) Plants used by the Cree nation of Eeyou Istchee (Quebec, Canada) for the treatment of diabetes: a novel approach in quantitative ethnobotany. J Ethnopharmacol 105:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. MAMOT – Ministère des Affaires municipales et de l’Occupation du territoire (2014) L’organisation municipale et régionale au Québec en 2014. Gouvernement du Québec, MAMOT, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  64. MAMROT – Ministère des Affaires municipales régions et occupation du territoire du Québec (2011) Baie-James, 2011. Gouvernement du Québec, Québec.
  65. MBJ – Municipalité de Baie-James (2010) Territoire de la Baie-James, 2010. Québec.
  66. MBJ – Municipalité de Baie-James (2011) Localités, 2010. Québec.
  67. MDDEPQ – Ministère du Développement durable, Environnement et Parcs du Québec (consulted 2011a) Région administrative du Nord-du-Québec, Portrait socio-économique de la région, 2002. Quebec.
  68. MDDEPQ – Ministère du Développement durable, Environnement et Parcs du Québec (consulted 2011b) Évaluation environnementale de projets en milieu nordique, 2002. Quebec.
  69. MDECRQ – Ministère du Développement économique Canada pour les régions du Québec (consulted 2011) Nord-du-Québec (10) – Profil socioéconomique, 2010-11-15. Quebec.
  70. Mercier G, Ritchot G (1997) La Baie James. Les dessous d’une rencontre que la bureaucratie n’avait pas prévue. Cah Géogr du Québec 41(113):137–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Minister of Justice of Canada (Last amended 2015) Indian Act R.S.C. 1985, c. I-5, art.18(1)Google Scholar
  72. Mitrovica JX, Forte AM, Simons M (2000) A reappraisal of postglacial decay times from Richmond Gulf and James Bay, Canada. Geophys J Int 142:783–800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Morantz T (1978) The probability of family hunting territories in eighteenth century James Bay: old evidence newly presented. In: Cowan W (ed) Proceedings of the Ninth Algonquian conference. Carleton University, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  74. Morantz T (2002) The White Man’s Gonna Getcha: the colonial challenge to the Crees in Quebec. McGill-Queen’s University Press, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  75. Morneau C, Payette S (1989) Postfire lichen – spruce woodland recovery at the limit of the Boreal forest in Northern Quebec. Can J Bot 67:2770–2782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. MRNF – Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune du Québec (2011) Plan Nord. Faire le Nord ensemble. Le chantier d’une génération. QuébecGoogle Scholar
  77. MRNF – Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune du Québec (consulted 2012a), La Loi sur les forêts. Quebec.
  78. MRNF – Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune du Québec (consulted 2012b) Limite nordique des forêts attribuables pour un aménagement forestier durable. Quebec.
  79. Mulrennan ME, Scott CH (2005) Co-management – an attainable partnership? Two cases from James Bay, Northern Quebec and Torres Strait, Northern Queensland. Anthropologica 47(2):197–213Google Scholar
  80. Mulrennan ME, Marc R, Scott CH (2012) Revamping community-based conservation through participatory research. Can Geogr 56(2):243–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Namagoose B (2002) A message from the newsletter editor, Eeyou Eenou nation: the voice of the people. Embassy of the Cree Nation, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  82. Nistor Baldea LA, Martineau LC, Benhaddou-Andaloussi A, Arnason JT, Lévy É, Haddad PS (2010) Inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption by anti-diabetic medicinal plants derived from the James Bay Cree traditional pharmacopeia. J Ethnopharmacol 132:473–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Olson DR, Torrance N (eds) (1991) Literacy and orality. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  84. Otis G, Motard G (2009) De Westphalie à Waswanipi: la personnalité des lois dans la nouvelle gouvernance crie. Cah de droit 50(1):121–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Parcs Canada (consulted 2011) Aires marines nationales de conservation du Canada, Baie James, novembre 2006. Canada.
  86. Payette S, Gagnon R (1979) Tree-line dynamics in Ungava Peninsula, Northern Quebec. Holarct Ecol 2:239–248Google Scholar
  87. Payette S, Morneau C, Sirois L, Desponts M (1989) Recent fire history of the Northern Québec biomes. Ecology 70(3):656–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Payette S, Fortin M-J, Gamache I (2001) The subarctic forest-tundra: the structure of a biome in a changing climate. Bioscience 51(9):709–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Peloquin C, Berkes F (2009) Local knowledge, subsistence harvests and social-ecological complexity in James Bay. Hum Ecol 37:533–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Petit J-G (2010) Cris et Inuit du nord du Québec: deux peuples entre tradition et modernité (1975-2010). In: Petit J-G, Bonnier VY, Aatami P, Iserhoff A (dir) Les Inuit et les Cris du nord du Québec. Presses universitaires de Rennes, QuebecGoogle Scholar
  91. Primarck RB (2006) Essentials of conservation biology, 4th edn. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  92. Raymond D (2011) Le lithium au Québec: les projets miniers d’actualité, Ministère des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune, Québec: juin 2011. Gouvernement du Québec, Québec.
  93. Reed A, Benoit R, Michel J, Lalumière R (1996) Utilisation des habitats côtiers du nord-est de la baie James par les bernaches. Publication hors-série No.92, Service canadien de la faune, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  94. Richard P (1979) Contribution a’ l’histoire postglaciaire de la végétation au nord-est de la Jamésie, Nouveau-Québec. Géog Phys Quatern 33(1):93–112Google Scholar
  95. Roebuck BD (1999) Elevated mercury in fish as a result of the James Bay hydroelectric development: perception and reality. In: Hornig JF (ed) Social and environmental impacts of the James Bay hydroelectric project. McGill-Queen’s University Press, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  96. Roué Marie (2009) Une oie qui traverse les frontières. La bernache du Canada. Ethnologie française 2009/1, Tome XXXIXGoogle Scholar
  97. Royer M-JS (2012) L’interaction entre les savoirs écologiques traditionnels et les changements climatiques: les Cris de la Baie-James, la bernache du Canada et le caribou des bois. Thèse présentée à la Faculté des Arts et Sciences en vue de l’obtention du grade de Philosophiae Doctor (PhD) en géographie, Université de Montréal, Montréal CanadaGoogle Scholar
  98. SAA – Secrétariat aux Affaires autochtones (1998) James Bay and Northern Québec agreement and complementary agreements, 1998th edn. Les Publications du Québec, QuébecGoogle Scholar
  99. SAA – Secrétariat aux affaires autochtones (2002) Entente concernant une nouvelle relation entre le Gouvernement du Québec et les Cris du Québec, Québec Canada (3.1.c)Google Scholar
  100. SAA – Secrétariat aux affaires autochtones (2009) Profil des Nations: Cris, Québec: 19 mai 2009. Gouvernement du Québec, Québec.
  101. Salée D, Lévesque C (2010) Representing Aboriginal self-government and first nations/state relations: political agency and the management of the Boreal forest in Eeyou Istchee. Int J Can Stud 41:99–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Salisbury RF (1986) A homeland for the Cree: regional development in James Bay, 1971–1981. McGill-Queen’s University Press, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  103. Savard S (2009) Les communautés autochtones du Québec et le développement hydroélectrique: un rapport de force avec l’État, de 1944 à aujourd’hui. Rech amérindiennes au Québec 39(1–2):47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sayles JS, Mulrennan ME (2010) Securing a future: Cree hunters’ resistance and flexibility to environmental changes, Wemindji, James Bay. Ecology and Society 15(4):Art.22.
  105. Scott C (1986) Hunting territories, hunting bosses and communal production among coastal James Bay Cree. Anthropologica 28(1/2):163–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Scott C (1988) Property, practice and aboriginal rights among Quebec Cree hunters. In: Ingold T, Riches D, Voodburn J (eds) Hunters and gatherers, volume 2: property, power and ideology. Berg Publishers Limited, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  107. Scott C (1989) Ideology of reciprocity between the James Bay Cree and the Whiteman State. In: Skalník P (ed) Outwitting the state, political anthropology, vol 7. Transaction Publishers, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  108. Scott C (2005) Co-management and the politics of Aboriginal consent to resource development: the agreement concerning a new relationship between le Gouvernement du Québec and the Cree of Québec. In: Murphy M (ed) Canada: the state of the federation 2003: reconfiguring aboriginal-state relations. McGill-Queen’s University Press, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  109. Scott CH, Feit HA (1992) Income security for Cree hunters: ecological, social and economic effects, Monograph series. McGill Program in the Anthropology of Development, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  110. SDBJQ – Société de développement de la Baie-James du Québec (consulted 2011a) Historique, Gouvernement du Québec: 2008–2009. Quebec Canada.
  111. SDBJQ – Société de développement de la Baie-James du Québec (consulted 2011b) Les projets régionaux: Projets miniers, Gouvernement du Québec, Québec: 2008–2009. Quebec.
  112. Statistics Canada (2012a) Oujé-Bougoumou, Québec (Code 2499818) and Nord-du-Québec, Quebec (Code 2499) (table). Census profile, 2011 census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.98-316-XWE. OttawaGoogle Scholar
  113. Statistics Canada (2012b) Eastmain, Québec (Code 2499810) and Nord-du-Québec, Quebec (Code 2499) (table). Census profile, 2011 census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.98-316-XWE. OttawaGoogle Scholar
  114. Statistics Canada (2012c) Chisasibi, Québec (Code 2499814) and Nord-du-Québec, Quebec (Code 2499) (table). Census profile, 2011 census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.98-316-XWE. OttawaGoogle Scholar
  115. Statistics Canada (2012d) Mistissini, Québec (Code 2499804) and Nord-du-Québec, Quebec (Code 2499) (table). Census profile, 2011 census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.98-316-XWE. OttawaGoogle Scholar
  116. Statistics Canada (2012e) Nemaska, Québec (Code 2499808) and Nord-du-Québec, Quebec (Code 2499) (table). Census profile, 2011 census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.98-316-XWE. OttawaGoogle Scholar
  117. Statistics Canada (2012f) Waskaganish, Québec (Code 2499806) and Nord-du-Québec, Quebec (Code 2499) (table). Census profile, 2011 census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.98-316-XWE. OttawaGoogle Scholar
  118. Statistics Canada (2012g) Waswanipi, Québec (Code 2499802) and Nord-du-Québec, Quebec (Code 2499) (table). Census profile, 2011 census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.98-316-XWE. OttawaGoogle Scholar
  119. Statistics Canada (2012h) Wemindji, Québec (Code 2499812) and Nord-du-Québec, Quebec (Code 2499) (table). Census profile, 2011 census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.98-316-XWE. OttawaGoogle Scholar
  120. Statistics Canada (2012i) Whapmagoostui, Québec (Code 2499816) and Nord-du-Québec, Quebec (Code 2499) (table). Census profile, 2011 census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no.98-316-XWE. OttawaGoogle Scholar
  121. Statistique Canada (consulted 2012) Profil pour le Canada, les provinces, les territoires, les divisions de recensement et les subdivisions de recensement, Recensement de 2006: Nord-du-Québec. Canada.
  122. Swyngedouw E (2007) Technonatural revolutions: the scalar politics of Franco’s hydro-social dream for Spain, 1939–1975. Trans Inst Br Geogr 32(1):9–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tanner A (1979) Bringing home animals: religious ideology and mode of production of the Mistassini Cree Hunter, Institute of Social and Economic Research. Memorial University of Newfoundland, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  124. Tanner A (1983) Algonquin land tenure and state structures in the North. Can J Nativ Stud 3(2):311–320Google Scholar
  125. Tanner A (2007) The nature of Quebec Cree animist practices and beliefs. In: Laugrand FB, Oosten JG (dir) La nature des esprits dans les cosmologies autochtones. Les Presses de l’Université de Laval, QuebecGoogle Scholar
  126. Thibault S, Payette S (2009) Recent permafrost degradation in bogs of the James Bay area, Northern Quebec, Canada. Permafr Periglac Process 20:383–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Transport Québec (consulted 2011) Nord-du-Québec: Territoire et population, Gouvernement du Québec, Québec: 2007. Quebec.
  128. Uprety Y, Asselin H, Dhakal A, Julien N (2012) Traditional use of medicinal plants in the Boreal Forest of Canada: review and perspectives. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8(1):Art.7. Google Scholar
  129. Usher PJ (2003) Environment, race and nation reconsidered: reflections on aboriginal land claims in Canada. Can Geogr 47(4):365–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Vincent S (1992) La révélation d’une force politique: les Autochtones. In: Daigle G, Rocher G (dir) Le Québec en jeu: comprendre les grands défis. Presses de l’Université de Montréal, MontréalGoogle Scholar
  131. Vinette D (1996) École, parents amérindiens et changements sociaux: la perception d’un intervenant non autochtone. Lien Social et Politiques 35:23–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Washaw Sibi Eeyou (consulted 2011) Home.
  133. White R (1995) The organic machine: the remaking of the Columbia river. Hill and Wang, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  134. Wills RH (1984) Conflicting perceptions: Western economics and the Great Whale River Cree. Tutorial Press, CanadaGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marie-Jeanne S. Royer
    • 1
  1. 1.Geography and Earth Sciences (DGES)Aberystwyth UniversityAberystwythUK

Personalised recommendations