• William Aspray
Part of the History of Computing book series (HC)


This chapter summarizes the earlier chapters. It also provides a discussion of a number of more general issues: the organizational capability of NSF to deal with deeply embedded social and cultural issues; how politics and the built environment have affected bottom-up and top-down initiatives related to broadening participation in computing; the impact of labor practices and funding models on the effectiveness of broadening participation programs; questions about where broadening participation programs should reside in NSF, the tensions between funding research and funding implementations, and differences in understanding of computer scientists and social scientists in carrying out these programs; the implications of adopting a pipeline metaphor; and topics not covered.


Program Officer Defense Advance Research Project Agency Defense Advance Research Project Agency Computing Field Computer Science Education 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Aspray
    • 1
  1. 1.School of InformationUniversity of Texas at AustinAustinUSA

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