Portenoy RK, Hagen NA. Breakthrough pain: definition and management. Oncology (Williston Park). 1989;3(8 Suppl):25–9.
Lossignol DA, Dumitrescu C. Breakthrough pain: progress in management. Curr Opin Oncol. 2010;22(4):302–6.
Payne R. Recognition and diagnosis of breakthrough pain. Pain Med. 2007;8 Suppl 1:S3–7.
Swarm RA, Abernethy AP, Anghelescu DL, Benedetti C, Buga S, Cleeland C, et al. Adult cancer pain. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2013;11(8):992–1022.
Zeppetella G. Breakthrough Pain. In: Hanks G, editor. Oxford textbook of palliative medicine. 4th ed. London: Oxford University Press; 2011. p. 654–61.
Caraceni A, Davies A, Poulain P, Cortes-Funes H, Panchal SJ, Fanelli G. Guidelines for the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2013;11 Suppl 1:S29–36.
Davies A, Buchanan A, Zeppetella G, Porta-Sales J, Likar R, Weismayr W, et al. Breakthrough cancer pain: an observational study of 1000 European oncology patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2013;46(5):619–28.
Caraceni A, Bertetto O, Labianca R, Maltoni M, Mercadante S, Varrassi G, et al. Episodic (breakthrough) pain prevalence in a population of cancer pain patients. Comparison of clinical diagnoses with the QUDEI – Italian questionnaire for intense episodic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2012;43(5):833–41.
Caraceni A, Martini C, Zecca E, Portenoy RK, Ashby MA, Hawson G, et al. Breakthrough pain characteristics and syndromes in patients with cancer pain. An international survey. Palliat Med. 2004;18(3):177–83.
Deandrea S, Corli O, Consonni D, Villani W, Greco MT, Apolone G. Prevalence of breakthrough cancer pain: a systematic review and a pooled analysis of published literature. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2014;47(1):57–76.
Greco MT, Corli O, Montanari M, Deandrea S, Zagonel V, Apolone G. Epidemiology and pattern of care of breakthrough cancer pain in a longitudinal sample of cancer patients: results from the cancer pain outcome research study group. Clin J Pain. 2011;27(1):9–18.
Mercadante S, Villari P, Ferrera P, Arcuri E, David F. Breakthrough pain in advanced cancer patients followed at home: a longitudinal study. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2009;38(4):554–60.
Fine PG, Busch MA. Characterization of breakthrough pain by hospice patients and their caregivers. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1998;16(3):179–83.
Green CR, Montague L, Hart-Johnson TA. Consistent and breakthrough pain in diverse advanced cancer patients: a longitudinal examination. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2009;37(5):831–47.
Portenoy RK, Bruns D, Shoemaker B, Shoemaker SA. Breakthrough pain in community-dwelling patients with cancer pain and noncancer pain, part 2: impact on function, mood, and quality of life. J Opioid Manag. 2010;6(2):109–16.
Mercadante S, Zagonel V, Breda E, Arcara C, Gebbia V, Porzio G, et al. Breakthrough pain in oncology: a longitudinal study. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2010;40(2):183–90.
Bhatnagar S, Upadhyay S, Mishra S. Prevalence and characteristics of breakthrough pain in patients with head and neck cancer: a cross-sectional study. J Palliat Med. 2010;13(3):291–5.
Haugen DF, Hjermstad MJ, Hagen N, Caraceni A, Kaasa S. Assessment and classification of cancer breakthrough pain: a systematic literature review. Pain. 2010;149(3):476–82.
Webber K, Davies AN, Zeppetella G, Cowie MR. Development and validation of the Breakthrough Pain Assessment Tool (BAT) in cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2014;48(4):619–32. pii: S0885-3924(14)00071-2. Epub ahead of print. April 22, 2014.
Caraceni A, Cherny N, Fainsinger R, Kaasa S, Poulain P, Radbruch L, et al. Pain measurement tools and methods in clinical research in palliative care: recommendations of an expert working group of the european association of palliative care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002;23(3):239–55.
Basch E, Autio K, Ryan CJ, Mulders P, Shore N, Kheoh T, et al. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone versus prednisone alone in chemotherapy-naive men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: patient-reported outcome results of a randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(12):1193–9.
Lutz ST, Jones J, Chow E. Role of radiation therapy in palliative care of the patient with cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(26):2913–9. pii: JCO.2014.55.1143. [Epub ahead of print].
McCahill LE, Krouse R, Chu D, Juarez G, Uman GC, Ferrell B, et al. Indications and use of palliative surgery-results of society of surgical oncology survey. Ann Surg Oncol. 2002;9(1):104–12.
Podnos YD, Juarez G, Pameijer C, Uman G, Ferrell BR, Wagman LD. Surgical palliation of advanced gastrointestinal tumors. J Palliat Med. 2007;10(4):871–6.
Stinnett S, Williams L, Johnson DH. Role of chemotherapy for palliation in the lung cancer patient. J Support Oncol. 2007;5(1):19–24.
Clemons MJ, Dranitsaris G, Ooi WS, Yogendran G, Sukovic T, Wong BY, et al. Phase II trial evaluating the palliative benefit of second-line zoledronic acid in breast cancer patients with either a skeletal-related event or progressive bone metastases despite first-line bisphosphonate therapy. J Clin Oncol. 2006;24(30):4895–900.
Cleeland CS, Body JJ, Stopeck A, von Moos R, Fallowfield L, Mathias SD, et al. Pain outcomes in patients with advanced breast cancer and bone metastases: results from a randomized, double-blind study of denosumab and zoledronic acid. Cancer. 2013;119(4):832–8.
Paley CA, Johnson MI, Bennett MI. Acupuncture: a treatment for breakthrough pain in cancer? BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2011;1(3):335–8.
Hardy J, Quinn S, Fazekas B, Plummer J, Eckermann S, Agar M, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to assess the efficacy and toxicity of subcutaneous ketamine in the management of cancer pain. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(29):3611–7.
Farrar JT, Cleary J, Rauck R, Busch M, Nordbrock E. Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate: randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial for treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1998;90(8):611–6.
Coluzzi PH, Schwartzberg L, Conroy JD, Charapata S, Gay M, Busch MA, et al. Breakthrough cancer pain: a randomized trial comparing oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate (OTFC) and morphine sulfate immediate release (MSIR). Pain. 2001;91(1–2):123–30.
Portenoy RK, Taylor D, Messina J, Tremmel L. A randomized, placebo-controlled study of fentanyl buccal tablet for breakthrough pain in opioid-treated patients with cancer. Clin J Pain. 2006;22(9):805–11.
Kosugi T, Hamada S, Takigawa C, Shinozaki K, Kunikane H, Goto F, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of fentanyl buccal tablets for breakthrough pain: efficacy and safety in Japanese cancer patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2014;47(6):990–1000.
Kress HG, Oronska A, Kaczmarek Z, Kaasa S, Colberg T, Nolte T. Efficacy and tolerability of intranasal fentanyl spray 50 to 200 microg for breakthrough pain in patients with cancer: a phase III, multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial with a 10-month, open-label extension treatment period. Clin Ther. 2009;31(6):1177–91. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2009.05.022.
Kongsgaard UE, Eeg M, Greisen H. The use of Instanyl(R) in the treatment of breakthrough pain in cancer patients: a 3-month observational, prospective, cohort study. Support Care Cancer. 2014;22(6):1655–62.
Guitart J, Vargas I, De Sanctis V, Ferreras J, Fuentes J, Salazar R, et al. Efficacy and safety of sublingual fentanyl orally disintegrating tablets in patients with breakthrough pain: multicentre prospective study. Clin Drug Investig. 2013;33(9):675–83.
Parikh N, Goskonda V, Chavan A, Dillaha L. Single-dose pharmacokinetics of fentanyl sublingual spray and oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate in healthy volunteers: a randomized crossover study. Clin Ther. 2013;35(3):236–43.
Rauck R, Reynolds L, Geach J, Bull J, Stearns L, Scherlis M, et al. Efficacy and safety of fentanyl sublingual spray for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012;28(5):859–70.
Hagen NA, Fisher K, Stiles C. Sublingual methadone for the management of cancer-related breakthrough pain: a pilot study. J Palliat Med. 2007;10(2):331–7.
Zeppetella G, Davies A, Eijgelshoven I, Jansen JP. A network meta-analysis of the efficacy of opioid analgesics for the management of breakthrough cancer pain episodes. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2014;47(4):772–85.