Advertisement

Cacao Diseases pp 213-266 | Cite as

Black Pod and Other Phytophthora Induced Diseases of Cacao: History, Biology, and Control

  • S. Surujdeo-MaharajEmail author
  • T. N. Sreenivasan
  • L. A. Motilal
  • P. Umaharan
Chapter

Abstract

The Oomycete genus Phytophthora is one of the most destructive plant pathogens. Over 100 Phytophthora species are described to date, but only a few are of major economic concern to the cacao industry. The history, biology, and control of Phytophthora spp. affecting cacao worldwide are examined. The genetic diversity, symptomatology, control measures, and screening for resistance of these pathogens are reviewed. The Phytophthora species attacking cacao were distributed across four of the ten clades recognised, and of these P. palmivora is ubiquitous to the cacao-growing regions. Although highly destructive, the genetic diversity within each species that attack cacao appeared to be limited, with many clonal lineages being recognised. Free water is needed for dispersal, infection, and completion of the life cycle of Phytophthora. The typical life cycle of Phytophthora is elucidated and illustrated. Infection on cacao is usually by motile, biflagellate zoospores which are liberated from stalked sporangia. Hyphae grow inter- and intracellularly and result in necrosis of host tissues. Various methods devised for the control of the disease and their relative merits are discussed. Screening methods for the identification of resistance are evaluated and their importance to future breeding programmes to generate stable resistant cultivars is discussed. Reliable high-quality disease resistance data for genomic applications will be increasingly needed. This data is dependent on robust screening methods and guidelines for future direction of research are also outlined.

Keywords

Stem Canker Phytophthora Species Potassium Phosphonate Phytophthora Palmivora Stem Inoculation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abad, Z. G., & Coffey, M. (2008). Development of a morphological-phylogenetic Lucid key for the identification of oomycetes: Phytophthora. In 3rd International Phytophthora, Pythium and related genera workshop: Integration of traditional and modern approaches for investigating the taxonomy and evolution of the Oomycetes, 23–24 August, Turin, Italy.Google Scholar
  2. Abad, Z. G., Coffey, M. D., Oudemans, P. V., Mann in’t Veld, W. A., de Gruyter, H., Cunnington, J., & Louws, F. J. (2008). Phytophthora bisheria sp. nov., a new species identified in isolates from the Rosaceous raspberry, rose and strawberry in three continents. Mycologia, 100, 99–110. doi: 10.3852/mycologia.100.1.99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Adebayo, A. A. (1971). A technique of inoculation of fixed cocoa pods with P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. Turrialba, 21, 280–282.Google Scholar
  4. Adegbola, M. O. K. (1981) Cocoa diseases of West Africa. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Cocoa Research Conference, Douala, Cameroon, 5–12 November 1979, pp. 243–250.Google Scholar
  5. Aitken, W. M., & Lass, R. A. (1975). Cocoa in Brazil. Cocoa Growers’ Bulletin, 23, 4–17.Google Scholar
  6. Akinrefon, O. A. (1971). Studies on the varietal reaction of cacao in Nigeria to P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 70, 359–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Akrofi, A. Y., Appiah, A. A., & Opoku, I. Y. (2003). Management of Phytophthora pod rot disease on cocoa farms in Ghana. Crop Protection, 22(3), 469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Amponsah, J. D. (1970). Preliminary studies of a laboratory method for screening cocoa seedlings for black-pod disease resistance. Report Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, 1968-69, pp. 106–110.Google Scholar
  9. Amponsah, J. D., & Asare-Nyako, A. (1972). Laboratory method for screening cocoa seedlings for black pod resistance. Report Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, 1969-70, pp. 155–158.Google Scholar
  10. Amponsah, J. D., & Asare-Nyako, A. (1973). Glasshouse method for screening seedlings of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) for resistance to black pod caused by P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 50, 143–152.Google Scholar
  11. Appiah, A., Flood, J., Archer, S. A., & Bridge, P. D. (2004). Molecular analysis of the major Phytophthora species on cocoa. Plant Pathology, 53, 209–219. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3059.2004.00980.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Appiah, A., Flood, J., Bridge, P. D., & Archer, S. A. (2003). Inter and intra specific morphometric variation and characterization of Phytophthora isolates from cocoa. Plant Pathology, 52, 168–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aragaki, M., & Uchida, J. (2001). Morphological distinctions between Phytophthora capsici and P. tropicalis sp. nov. Mycologia, 93, 137–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ashby, S. F. (1920). Notes on two diseases of the coconut palm in Jamaica, caused by fungi of the genus Phytophthora. West Indian Bulletin, 18, 61–73.Google Scholar
  15. Ashby, S. F. (1929). Strains and taxonomy of Phytophthora palmivora Butler (P. Faberi Maubl.). Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 14(1–2), 18–38. doi: 10.1016/S0007-1536(29)80025-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Asomaning, E. J. A. (1964). Varietal resistance of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) to root infection by Phytophthora palmivora. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 41, 251–256.Google Scholar
  17. Asomaning, E. J. A., & Wharton, A. L. (1963). Root infection of cocoa by Phytophthora palmivora Butl. Studies on varietal resistance to root infection. Annual Report of the West Africa Cocoa Research Institute, 1961-62, pp. 27–28.Google Scholar
  18. Bakala, J. (1981). Distribution of the Morphological types of Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl. in Cameroun. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Cocoa Research Conference, Douala, Cameroon, 5–12 November 1979, pp. 297–301.Google Scholar
  19. Baker, R. E. D. (1936). Notes on Trinidad fungi. 1 Phytophthora. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 13, 330–332.Google Scholar
  20. Barreto, M. A., Santos, J. C. S., Corrêa, R. X., Luz, E. D. M. N., Marelli, J., & Souza, A. P. (2015). Detection of genetic resistance to cocoa black pod disease caused by three Phytophthora species. Euphytica. doi: 10.1007/s10681-015-1490-4.Google Scholar
  21. Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1969). Cell wall differentiation in the Phycomycetes. Phytopathology, 59, 1065–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1973). Cell wall genesis in a natural protoplast: The zoospore of Phytophthora palmivora. In J. R. Villanueva, I. Garcia-Acha, S. Gascon, & F. Uruburu (Eds.), Yeast, mould and plant protoplasts (pp. 77–91). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  23. Bartnicki-Garcia, S., & Wang, M. C. (1983). Biochemical aspects of morphogenesis in Phytophthora. In D. C. Erwin, S. Bartnicki-Garcia, & P. H. Tsoa (Eds.), Phytophthora. Its biology, taxonomy, ecology and pathology (pp. 121–137). St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
  24. Beakes, G. W., Glockling, S. L., & Sekimoto, S. (2012). The evolutionary phylogeny of the oomycete “fungi”. Protoplasma, 249(1), 3–19. doi: 10.1007/s00709-011-0269-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Beakes, G. W., & Sekimoto, S. (2009). The evolutionary phylogeny of oomycetes—insights gained from studies of holocarpic parasites of algae and invertebrates. In K. Lamour & S. Kamoun (Eds.), Oomycete genetics and genomics: Diversity, interactions and research tools (pp. 1–24). New York: Wiley.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Bimpong, C. E., & Clerk, G. C. (1970). Motility and chemotaxis in zoospores of Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl. Annals of Botany, 34, 617–624.Google Scholar
  27. Bimpong, C. E., & Hickman, C. J. (1975). Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies of zoospores, cysts, and germinating cysts of Phytophthora palmivora. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53(13), 1310–1327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Blackwell, E. (1949). Terminology in Phytophthora. Mycological Paper 30. C.M.I. Kent, Surrey, England, 24 pp.Google Scholar
  29. Blaha, G. (1967). P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl: Variation de la pathogénie en function de la source de l’inoculum. Café Cacao Thé, 11, 331–336.Google Scholar
  30. Blaha, G. (1971). Contribution a l’etude de la sensibilite du cacaoyer a P. palmivora au Cameroon. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana, 23–29 November, 1969, pp. 410–421.Google Scholar
  31. Blaha, G. (1972). Recherche de cultivars resistants a P. palmivora: etude comparative des reactions aux infections experimentales effectuees sur cabosses. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Cocoa Research Conference, St. Augustine, Trinidad, 8–18 January, 1972, pp. 435–445.Google Scholar
  32. Blaha, G. (1974). Methods of testing for resistance. In P. H. Gregory (Ed.), Phytophthora disease of cocoa (pp. 179–195). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  33. Blaha, G., & Lotodé, R. (1977). Contribution à la connaissance des modalitiés de la transmission héréditaire de la résistance du cacaoyer à la pourriture brune des cabosses (P. palmivora) au Cameroun. Café Cacao Thé, 21, 179–196.Google Scholar
  34. Blair, J. E., Coffey, M. D., Park, S. Y., Geiser, D. M., & Kang, S. (2008). A multi-locus phylogeny for Phytophthora utilizing markers derived from complete genome sequences. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 45(3), 266–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Blencowe, J. W., & Wharton, A. L. (1961). Black pod disease in Ghana: Incidence of the disease in relation to levels of productivity. In: Report of the West African Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana, 1959-60, pp. 24–29.Google Scholar
  36. Boccas, B. R. (1981). Interspecific crosses between closely related heterothallic Phytophthora species. Phytopathology, 71, 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bowden, J. (1961). Responses of cocoa to copper sprays in Ghana. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 38, 325–331.Google Scholar
  38. Bowers, J. H., Martin, F. N., Tooley, P. W., & Luz, E. D. M. N. (2007). Genetic and morphological diversity of temperate and tropical isolates of Phytophthora capsici. Phytopathology, 97, 492–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Brasier, C. M., & Griffin, M. J. (1979). Taxonomy of Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 72, 111–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Brasier, C. M., & Hansen, E. M. (1992). Evolutionary biology of Phytophthora. II. Phylogeny, speciation, and population structure. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 30, 173–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Brasier, C. M., & Medeiros, A. G. (1978). The karyotype of Phytophthora palmivora Morphological Form 4. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 70, 295–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Briton-Jones, H. R. (1934). The diseases and curing of cacao. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. Butler, E. J. (1907). An account of the genus Phtyium and some Chytridiaceae. Memoirs of the Department of Agriculture in India. Botanical Series, 1, 1–106.Google Scholar
  44. Butler, E. J. (1919). Report of the Imperial Mycologist, 1918-1919. Scientific Report of the Research Institute Pusa 1918-1919, p. 82Google Scholar
  45. Campêlo, A. M. F. L., Luz, E. D. M. N., & de Resnick, F. C. Z. (1982). Podridão-parda do cacaueiro, nos Estados da Bahia, Brasil. 1 – virulencia das especies de Phytophthora. Revisita Theobroma, CEPEC, Itabuna-Brasil, Ano 12, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  46. Carruthers, L. B. (1898). Cacao and its enemies in Ceylon. Tropical Agriculturist, 18, 359–505.Google Scholar
  47. Chant, S. R. (1957). A dieback of cacao seedlings in Nigeria caused by a species of Phytophthora. Nature, 180, 1494–1495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Chee, K. H., & Wastie, R. L. (1970). Black pod disease of cocoa. Planter, Kuala Lumpur, 46, 294–297.Google Scholar
  49. Chowdappa, P., Brayford, D., Smith, J., & Flood, J. (2003). Molecular discrimination of Phytophthora isolates on cocoa and their relationship with coconut, black pepper and bell pepper isolates based on rDNA repeat and AFLP fingerprints. Current Science, 84(9), 1235–1238.Google Scholar
  50. Chowdappa, P., & Chandramohanan, R. (1995). Electrophoretic protein patterns of three species of Phytophthora associated with black pod disease of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.). Journal of Biosciences, 20, 637–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Chowdappa, P., & Chandramohanan, R. (1996). Phytophthora citrophthora from cocoa in India. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 73, 158–160.Google Scholar
  52. Chowdappa, P., & Chandramohanan, R. (1997). Occurrence and distribution of mating types of Phytophthora species causing black pod disease of cocoa. Indian Phytopathology, 50(2), 256–260.Google Scholar
  53. Coleman, L. C. (1910). Diseases of Areca palm (Areca catechu L.). 1. Kolerogaor rot disease. Annales Mycologici (Berlin), 8, 591–626.Google Scholar
  54. Cooke, D. E. L., Drenth, A., Duncan, J. M., Wagels, G., & Brasier, C. M. (2000). A molecular phylogeny of Phytophthora and related oomycetes. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 30, 17–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Curzi, M. (1927). L’eziologia della ‘cancrena pedale’ del Capsicum annuum (The etiology of foot rot of Capsicum annuum). Rivista di Patologia Vegetale 17: 1–19. (In Italian). (Review of Applied Mycology 1927 6: 333.)Google Scholar
  56. Dade, H. A. (1927). Economic significance of cacao pod diseases and factors determining their incidence and control. Department of Agriculture Gold Coast Bulletin, 6, 58.Google Scholar
  57. Dade, H. A. (1928). The relationship between diseased cushions and the seasonal outbreak of ‘black pod’ disease. Department of Agriculture Gold Coast Bulletin, 13, 85–88.Google Scholar
  58. Dade, H. A. (1929). Origin and spiral arrangement of cushions in cacao. Department of Agriculture Gold Coast Bulletin, 16, 147–150.Google Scholar
  59. Dakwa, J. T. (1988). A serious outbreak of the black pod disease in a marginal area of Ghana. In: Cocoa Producers’ Alliance (Eds.), Proceedings of the Tenth International Cocoa Research Conference (pp. 447–451), 1987, Santa Domingo: Dominican Republic.Google Scholar
  60. de Bary, A. (1881). Zur Kenntniss der Peronosporeen (Information on peronosporas). Botanische Zeitung. 39:585–625; 601–609; 617–625. (In German).Google Scholar
  61. Desjardins, P. R., Zentmyer, G. A., & Reynolds, D. A. (1969). Electron microscopic observations of the flagellar hairs of Phytophthora palmivora zoospores. Canadian Journal of Botany, 47, 1077–1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Despréaux, D. (2004). Phytophthora diseases of Theobroma cacao. In C. Cilas & D. Despréaux (Eds.), Improvement of cocoa tree resistance to Phytophthora diseases (pp. 15–44). France: CIRAD.Google Scholar
  63. Dick, M. W. (1992). Patterns of phenology in population of zoosporic fungi. In G. C. Carroll & D. T. Wicklow (Eds.), The fungal community. Its organization and role in the ecosystem (pp. 355–382). New York: Marcell Dekker.Google Scholar
  64. Djiekpor, E. K., Goka, K., Lucas, P., & Partiot, M. (1981). Cocoa black pod rot caused by Phytophthora sp. in Togo: Assessment and control strategies. Cafe Cacao Thé, 25(4), 263–268.Google Scholar
  65. Dobrowolski, M. P., Tommerup, I. P., & O’Brien, P. A. (1998). Microsatellites in the mitochondrial genome of Phytophthora cinnamomi failed to provide highly polymorphic markers for population genetics. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 163, 243–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Donahoo, R., Blomquist, C. L., Thomas, S. L., Moulton, J. K., Cooke, D. E. L., & Lamour, K. H. (2006). Phytophthora foliorum sp. nov., a new species causing leaf blight of azalea. Mycological Research, 110, 1309–1322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Donahoo, R. S., & Lamour, K. H. (2008a). Interspecific hybridization and apomixis between Phytophthora capsici and Phytophthora tropicalis. Mycologia, 100(6), 911–920. doi: 10.3852/08-028.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Donahoo, R. S., & Lamour, K. (2008b). Characterization of Phytophthora species from leaves of nursery woody ornamentals in Tennessee. Hortscience, 43, 1833–1837.Google Scholar
  69. Drenth, A., & Guest, D. (2013). Phytophthora palmivora in tropical tree crops. In K. Lamour (Ed.), Phytophthora: A global perspective (pp. 187–196). Oxfordshire: CABI Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ducamp, M., Nyassé, S., Grivet, L., Thevenin, J.-M., Blaha, G., Despreaux, D., & Cilas, C. (2004). Genetic diversity of cocoa tree Phytophthora pathogens. In C. Cilas & D. Despreaux (Eds.), Improvement of cocoa tree resistance to Phytophthora diseases (p. 45e75). Montpellier: Reperes, Cirad.Google Scholar
  71. Elliot, C. G. (1983). Physiology of sexual reproduction in Phytophthora. Pages 71–80 in. . D. C. Erwin, S. Bartnicki-Garcia, & P. H. Tsao (Eds.), Phytophthora: Its biology, taxonomy, ecology, and pathology. St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society, 392 pp.Google Scholar
  72. Enríquez, C. G., & Soria, V. J. (1967). Selección y estudio de los carácteres útiles de la flor para la identificación y descripción de cultivares de cacao. Cacao (Costa Rica), 12, 8–16.Google Scholar
  73. Enzenbacher, T. B., Naegele, R. P., & Hausbeck, M. K. (2015). Susceptibility of greenhouse ornamentals to Phytophthora capsici and P. tropicalis. Plant Disease 99 May 2015 First Look. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-03-15-0333-RE
  74. Érsek, T., & Ribeiro, O. K. (2010). An annotated list of new Phytophthora species described post 1996. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 45, 251–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Erselius, L. J., & De Vallavieille, C. (1984). Variation in protein profiles of Phytophthora: Comparison of six species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 83, 463–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Erwin, D. C., & Ribeiro, O. K. (1996). Phytophthora diseases worldwide. St. Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
  77. Erwin, D. C., & Ribeiro, O. K. (2005). Phytophthora diseases worldwide (p. 562). St. Paul, MN: APS Press.Google Scholar
  78. Eskes, A. (2001).Collaborative activities on cocoa germplasm utilization and conservation supported by the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project. In: Proceedings of the 13th International Cocoa Research Conference, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia, 9–14 October 2000, pp. 23–30.Google Scholar
  79. Evans, H. E. (1971). Transmission of Phytophthora pod rot of cocoa by invertebrates. Nature, 232, 346–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Fagan, H. J. (1984). An assessment of pathological research on cocoa in Jamaica from 1950-1980 and current research priorities. Tropical Pest Management, 30(4), 430–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Faleiro, F. G., Luz, E. D. M. N., Cerqueira, A. O., Rocha, C. S. S., Dantas Neto, A., Flores, A. B., Bahia, R. C. S., & Faleiro, A. S. G. (2004). Caracterização e diversidade genética de isolados de Phytophthora spp. do cacaueiro com base em marcadores RAPD. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 29, 303–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Filani, G. A. (1973). The chemical control of P. palmivora in Nigeria: An evaluation of present situation. ORSTOM Series in Biology, 20, 47–49.Google Scholar
  83. Firman, I. D. (1974). Cocoa canker. In P. H. Gregory (Ed.), Phytophthora disease of cocoa (pp. 131–140). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  84. Firman, I. D., & Sundaram, S. (1970). Reaction of cocoa cultivars to caker caused by P. palmivora in Fiji. Plant Disease Reporter, 64, 1035–1037.Google Scholar
  85. Firman, I. D., & Vernon, A. J. (1970). Cocoa canker caused by P. palmivora. Annals of Applied Biology, 65, 65–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Förster, H., Oudemans, P., & Coffey, M. D. (1990). Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA diversity within six species of Phytophthora. Experimental Mycology, 14, 18–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Fry, W. E. (1982). Principles of disease management. New York: Academic. 378 pp.Google Scholar
  88. Gallegly, M. E., & Galindo, A. J. (1958). Mating types and oospores of Phytophthora infestans in nature in Mexico. Phytopathology, 48, 274–277.Google Scholar
  89. Gobena, D., Galmarini, J. R. C., Hulvey, J., & Lamour, K. (2012). Genetic diversity of Phytophthora capsici isolates from pepper and pumpkin in Argentina. Mycologia, 104(1), 102–107. doi: 10.3852/11-147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Goodwin, S. B. (1997). The population genetics of Phytophthora. Phytopathology, 87, 462–473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Goodwin, P. H., Kirkpatrick, B. C., & Duniway, J. M. (1990). Identification of Phytophthora citrophthora with cloned DNA probes. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56, 669–674.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Gorenz, A. M. (1968). Spread of Phytophthora pod rot from the tree base to pods in the canopy. Half Year Progress Report Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria, 8, 15–16.Google Scholar
  93. Gorenz, A. M. (1971). The cotton-pad placement method of inoculating cocoa pods in the field or laboratory. Première reunion du S/Groupe de Travail Afrique sur P. palmivora, Yaoundé, 1971.Google Scholar
  94. Gregory, P. H. (1969). Black pod disease project report. London: Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionery Alliance.Google Scholar
  95. Gregory, P. H. (1974). Phytophthora disease of cocoa. London: Longman. 336 pp.Google Scholar
  96. Gregory, P. H. (1981). Speculations on Phytophthora as a cocoa root pathogen. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Cocoa Research Conference, Douala, Cameroon, 5–12 November 1979, pp. 267–269.Google Scholar
  97. Griffin, M. J. (1977). Cocoa Phytophthora Workshop. Rothamsted Experimental Station, England, 24–26 May 1976. PANS 23: 107–110Google Scholar
  98. Griffin, M. J., Idowu, O. L., Maddison, A. C., Taylor, B., & Ward, M. R. (1981). Source of infection. In P. H. Gregory & A. C. Maddison (Eds.), Epidemiology of Phytophthora on cocoa in Nigeria, Phytopathology paper No. 25 (pp. 75–95). Kew, Surrey: Commonwealth Mycological Institute.Google Scholar
  99. Griffith, J., Davis, A. J., & Grant, B. R. (1992). Target sites of fungicides to control Oomycetes. In W. Koller (Ed.), Target sites of fungicide action (pp. 69–100). London: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  100. Guest, D. (2007). Black pod: diverse pathogens with a global impact on cocoa yield. Phytopathology, 97, 1650–1653.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Guest, D. I., Anderson, R. D., Foard, H. J., Phillips, D., Worboys, S., & Middleton, R. M. (1994). Longterm control of Phytophthora palmivora diseases of cocoa using trunk-injected phosphonate. Plant Pathology, 43, 479–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Guest, D. I., & Grant, B. R. (1991). The complex action of phosphonates as antifungal agents. Biological Reviews, 66, 159–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Gunderson, J. H., Elwood, H., Ingold, A., Kindle, K., & Sogin, M. L. (1987). Phylogenetic relationships between chlorophytes, chrysophytes, and oomycetes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 84(16), 5823–5827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Hansen, A. (1961). Resistance and susceptibility of different cacao varieties to P palmivora. Cacao (Costa Rica), 6, 8.Google Scholar
  105. Hemmes, D. E. (1983). Cytology of Phytophthora. In D. C. Erwin, S. Bartnicki-Garcia, & P. H. Tsao (Eds.), Phytophthora: Its biology, taxonomy, ecology and pathology (pp. 9–40). St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society. 392 pp.Google Scholar
  106. Hendrix, J. W. (1970). Sterols in growth and reproduction of fungi. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 8, 111–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Henry, C. E. (1977). Primary sources of P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. inoculum in Jamaica and methods of control. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Cocoa Research Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1–9 September 1975, pp. 388–396.Google Scholar
  108. Hislop, E. C. (1964). Black pod disease. Cocoa Growers’ Bulletin, 2, 4–9.Google Scholar
  109. Ho, H. H., Ann, P. J., & Chang, H. S. (1995). The genus Phytophthora in Taiwan. Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica Monograph Series No. 15, Teipei.Google Scholar
  110. Holderness, M. (1992). Comparison of metalaxyl/cuprous oxide sprays and potassium phosphonate as sprays and trunk injections for control of Phytophthora palmivora pod rot and caker of cocoa. Crop Protection, 11, 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Holliday, P. (1954). Notes on the control of black pod and witches’ broom diseases in Trinidad. In: Proceedings of the Conference InterAmerican de Cacao, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 1954, Fitopatologia Vol 1, Doc. 15, 5.Google Scholar
  112. Holliday, P. (1960). A spraying and harvesting trial in Trinidad against cacao pod disease. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 37, 235–242.Google Scholar
  113. Hu, J., Diao, Y., Zhou, Y., Lin, D., Bi, Y., et al. (2013). Loss of heterozygosity drives clonal diversity of Phytophthora capsici in China. PLoS One, 8(12), e82691. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082691.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Hulvey, J. P. (2010) Investigating genetic diversity of Phytophthora spp. and related oomycetes. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Tennessee. http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/807
  115. Hurtado-Gonzales, O. P., Aragon-Caballero, L., Apaza-Tapia, W., Donahoo, R., & Lamour, K. (2008). Survival and spread of Phytophthora capsici in coastal Peru. Phytopathology, 98 (6), 688–694.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. ICCO. (2015) Production of cocoa beans. ICCO Quarterly Bulletin of Cocoa Statistics 41(2), Cocoa year 2014/15. Published 29-05-2015. http://www.icco.org/statistics/
  117. Ivors, K. L., Hayden, K. J., Bonants, P. J. M., Rizzo, D. M., & Garbelotto, M. (2004). AFLP and phylogenetic analyses of North American and European populations of Phytophthora ramorum. Mycological Research, 108, 378–392.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Iwaro, A. D. (1995). Mechanisms of resistance to Phytophthora palmivora (Butler) Butler in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and their genetic basis. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Plant Science, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.Google Scholar
  119. Iwaro, A. D., Butler, D. R., & Eskes, A. B. (2006). Sources of resistance to Phytophthora pod rot at the International Cocoa Genebank, Trinidad. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 53, 99–109. doi: 10.1007/s10722-004-1411-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Iwaro, A. D., Sreenivasan, T. N., & Umaharan, P. (1997). Foliar resistance to Phytophthora palmivora as an indicator of pod resistance in Theobroma cacao. Plant Disease, 81, 619–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Iwaro, A. D., Sreenivasan, T. N., & Umaharan, P. (1998). Cacao resistance to Phytophthora: Effect of pathogens species, inoculation depths and pod maturity. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 104, 11–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Johnson, E. S., Aime, M. C., Crozier, J., Flood, J., Iwaro, D. A., & Schnell, R. J. (2006). A new morpho-type of Phytophthora palmivora on cacao in Central America. In: Proceedings of the INCOPED 5th International Seminar, 15–17th Oct 2006, San Jose, Costa Rica, pp. 31–39.Google Scholar
  123. Joseph, J. (1985). Relationship between infection of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) pod and vegetative tissue by Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butler, Final Year Project, Department of Plant Science, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.Google Scholar
  124. Kamjaipai, W., & Ui, T. (1978). Mating types of Phytophthora capsici Leonian, the causal fungus of pumpkin rot in Hokkaido. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 44, 440–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kamoun, S. (2003). Molecular genetics of pathogenic oomycetes. Eukaryotic Cell, 2(2), 191–199. doi: 10.1128/EC.2.2.191-199.2003.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kamoun, S., Hraber, P., Sobral, B., Nuss, D., & Govers, F. (1999). Initial assessment of gene diversity for the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans based on expressed sequences. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 28, 94–106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kaosiri, T. (1978) Morphological, Taxonomic and Cytological studies of Phytophthora palmivora. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Riverside, United States, 148 p.Google Scholar
  128. Kaosiri, T., Zentmyer, G. A., & Erwin, D. C. (1978). Stalk length as a taxonomic criterion for Phytophthora palmivora isolates from cacao. Canadian Journal of Botany, 56, 1730–1738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kellam, M. K., & Zentmyer, G. A. (1986). Morphological, physiological, ecological and pathological comparisons of Phytophthora species isolated from Theobroma cacao. Phytopathology, 76, 159–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Ko, W.-H., & Chang, H. S. (1979). Phytophthora katsurae, a new name for P. castaneae. Mycologia, 71, 840–844.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Ko, W.-H., Wang, S. Y., & Ann, P. J. (2006). The possible origin and relation of Phytophthora katsurae and P. heveae, discovered in a protected natural forest in Taiwan. Botanical Studies, 47, 273–277.Google Scholar
  132. Konam, J. K., & Guest, D. I. (2004). Role of beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Nitidulidae) in the spread of Phytophthora palmivora pod rot of cocoa in Papua New Guinea. Australasian Plant Pathology, 33, 55–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Kroon, L. P. N. M., Bakker, F. T., van den Bosch, G. B. M., Bonants, P. J. M., & Flier, W. G. (2004). Phylogenetic analysis of Phytophthora species based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 41(8), 766–782. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2004.03.007.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kroon, L. P. N. M., Brouwer, H., de Cock, A. W. A. M., & Govers, F. (2012). The genus Phytophthora anno 2012. Phytopathology, 102, 348–364.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Laker, H. A. (1982). Cocoa and its diseases: A literature review. Cocoa Research Unit, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.Google Scholar
  136. Lamour, K. H., & Hausbeck, M. K. (2001). Investigating the spatiotemporal genetic structure of Phytophthora capsici in Michigan. Phytopathology, 91, 973–980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lass, R. A. (2001). Diseases. In G. A. R. Wood & R. A. Lass (Eds.), Cocoa (4th ed., pp. 265–365). Oxford: Blackwell. doi: 10.1002/9780470698983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Lawrence, J. S. (1978). Evaluation of methods for assessing resistance of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) cultivars and hybrids to Phytophthora palmivora (Butler) Butler. Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil. Centro de Pesquisas do Cacau. Boletim Técnico no. 62, 47 pp.Google Scholar
  139. Lawrence, J. S., Campelo, A. M. F. L., & de Figueiredo, J. M. (1990). Diseases of cacao. I-Fungal diseases which occur on the fruit (in Portuguese). Agrotropica, 2, 121–136.Google Scholar
  140. Lawrence, J. S., Luz, E. D. M. N., & Resnik, F. C. Z. (1982). The relative virulence of Phytophthora palmivora and P. capsici on cacao in Bahia, Brazil. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Cocoa Research Conference, 1981, Cartagena, Colombia. Lagos, Nigeria: Cocoa Producers’ Alliance, pp. 395–400.Google Scholar
  141. Lee, J. K., Jo, J. W., Shin, K. C., Lee, S. H., & Lee, S. Y. (2009). Isolation, identification and characterization of Phytophthora katsurae causing chestnut ink disease in Korea. The Plant Pathology Journal, 25(2), 121–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Lellis, W. T., & Peixoto Filho, O. (1960). Communicacao preliminar sobre a resistencia do cacao ‘Catongo’ a P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. Institute Cacau de Bahia Boletin Informative, 61, 26–31.Google Scholar
  143. Leonian, L. H. (1922). Stem and fruit blight of peppers caused by Phytophthora capsici sp. nov. Phytopathology, 12, 401–408.Google Scholar
  144. Leonian, L. H. (1925). Physiological studies on the genus Phytophthora. American Journal of Botany, 12, 444–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Leonian, L. H. (1934). Identification of Phytophthora species. West Virginia Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin, 262, 2–36.Google Scholar
  146. Lewton-Brain, L. (1906). Fungoid diseases of cacao. West Indian Bulletin, 6(1), 85–94.Google Scholar
  147. Liyanage, N. I. S., & Wheeler, B. E. J. (1989). Phytophthora katsurae from cocoa. Plant Pathology, 38, 627–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Lozano, T. Z. E., & Romero, C. S. (1984). Estudio taxanomico de aislamientos de Phytophthora patogenos de cacao. Agrociencia, 56, 176–182.Google Scholar
  149. MacKenzie, D. R., Elliott, V. J., Kidney, B. A., King, E. D., Royer, M. H., & Theberge, R. L. (1983). Application of modern approaches to the study of the epidemiology of diseases caused by Phytophthora. In D. C. Erwin, S. Bartnicki-Garcia, & P. H. Tsoa (Eds.), Phytophthora. Its biology, taxonomy, ecology and pathology (pp. 303–313). St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
  150. Maddison, A. C., Griffin, M. J. (1981). Detection and movement of inoculum. In: Epidemiology of Phytophthora on cocoa in Nigeria. Phytopathology paper No. 25. Kew: Commonwealth Mycological Institute, pp. 31–49.Google Scholar
  151. Maddison, A. C., Ward, M. R. (1981). The international black pod project: 1979 review. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Cocoa Research Conference, Douala, Cameroon, 5–12 November, 1979, pp. 261–266.Google Scholar
  152. Manco, G. R. (1966). Phytophthora palmivora in flower cushions, old infected pods and leaves of cacao plants. Turrialba, 16, 148–155.Google Scholar
  153. Manco, G. R. (1974). Blight of shoots, chupons, cuttings, grafts, and seedlings. In P. H. Gregory (Ed.), Phytophthora disease of cocoa (pp. 149–152). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  154. Maora, J. Y. S. (2008). Diversity of Phytophthora palmivora on cocoa in Papua New Guinea. Ph.D. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources, The University of Sydney, Australia.Google Scholar
  155. Marticou, H., & Muller, R. A. (1964). Essai de mise au point d’une method d’experimentation adaptée aux conditions de la cacaoyere camerounaise traditionnelle. Café Cacao Thé, 8, 173–202.Google Scholar
  156. Martin, F. N., Abad, Z. G., Balci, Y., & Ivors, K. (2012). Identification and detection of Phytophthora: Reviewing our progress, identifying our needs. Plant Disease, 96(8), 1080–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Martin, F. N., Blair, J. E., & Coffey, M. D. (2014). A combined mitochondrial and nuclear multilocus phylogeny of the genus Phytophthora. Fungal Genetics and Biology, 66, 19–32. doi: 10.1016/j.fgb.2014.02.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Martin, F. N., & Tooley, F. W. (2003). Phylogenetic relationships among Phytophthora species inferred from sequence analysis of mitochondrially encoded cytochrome oxidase I and II genes. Mycologia, 95(2), 269–284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Massee, G. (1899). Cacao diseases in Trinidad. Kew Bulletin, 1, 1–6.Google Scholar
  160. Mata, A. (2014). A study of the molecular and morphological diversity of the pathogen Phytophthora palmivora on cacao in Trinidad and Tobago. BIOL 3069 Research Project Report, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, 45 p.Google Scholar
  161. Maublanc, C. (1909). Les maladies des plantes cultivees dans les pays chauds. Maladies du cacaoyer. Agriculture Pratique Des Pays Chauds, 9, 314–318.Google Scholar
  162. McDonald, K. L., Sutherland, M. W., & Guest, D. I. (2002). Temporary hypoxia suppresses the oxidative burst and hypersensitive cell death in cells of tobacco and soybean challenged with zoospores of incompatible isolates of Phytophthora species. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 61, 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. McGregor, A. J. (1982). Evaluation of fungicides for control of black pod in Papua New Guinea. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Plant Protection in the Tropics, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Malaysian Crop Protection Society, pp. 233–239.Google Scholar
  164. Mchau, G. R. A., & Coffey, M. D. (1994a). An integrated study of morphological and isozyme patterns found within a worldwide collection of Phytophthora citrophthora and a redescription of the species. Mycological Research, 98(11), 1291–1299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Mchau, G. R. A., & Coffey, M. D. (1994b). Isozyme diversity in Phytophthora palmivora: Evidence for a southeast Asian centre of origin. Mycological Research, 98(9), 1035–1043. doi: 10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80430-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Mchau, G. R. A., & Coffey, M. D. (1995). Evidence for the existence of two subpopulations in Phytophthora capsici and a redescription of the species. Mycological Research, 99, 89–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. McLaughlin, J. H. (1950). Some symptoms of Phytophthora palmivora Butl. infection on Theobroma cacao L. in Costa Rica. Cacao (Costa Rica), 2, 3–5.Google Scholar
  168. Medeiros, A. G. (1967). Methodology of research to study resistance of P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. In: Proceedings of the International Cocoa Research Conference, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, 15–20 November 1965, pp. 205–211.Google Scholar
  169. Medeiros, A. G., Machado, A. D. (1967). Variaco da Resistencia do trecido de fruto de cacu e podrido parda. Information Technology CEPLAC, CEPEC, Itabuna, Brazil, 1967, pp. 47–48.Google Scholar
  170. Medeiros, A. G., & Rocha, H. M. (1964). Programacao dos trabalhos de selecao de cacqueiros resistantes a ‘podrido parda’ no Estado da Bahia-Brazil. 4th Annual Meeting Caribbean Division American Phytopathology Society Mexico City, 1964. (Abstract) Phytopathology 55: 125–126.Google Scholar
  171. Medeiros, A. G., Rocha, H. M. (1965). Ensao de Resistencia do cacao ‘Maracuja’ a podridao parda. CEPEC Relatório Annual. Bahia 1964, p. 30.Google Scholar
  172. Mollineau, W. M., Bekele, F., & Garcia, G. W. (2008). The Neo-tropical red squirrel (Sciurus granatensis) as a pest of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) in the International Cacao Genebank, Trinidad; Trinidad. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 85(2), 1–12.Google Scholar
  173. Muller, H. R. A. (1936). Het Phytophthora-voetrot van peper (Pipernigrum L.) in Nederlandsch- Indie. Meded Inst. Plantenziekten Batavia, 8(8), 1–73.Google Scholar
  174. Muller, R. A., & Lotode, R. (1971) Problemes de l’experimentation dans les cacaoyeres. Preimere Rénuion du S/Groupe de Travail Afrique sur P. palmivora, Yaoundé, 1971.Google Scholar
  175. Newhall, A. G. (1968). To increase efficiency or lower the cost of control of Phytophthora pod rot of cacao. Turrialba, 18, 79–82.Google Scholar
  176. Newhook, F. J., Waterhouse, G. M., & Stamps, D. J. (1978). Tabular key to the species of Phytophthora de Bary. Mycological Papers, no. 143. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, England.Google Scholar
  177. Nowell, W. (1923). Diseases of crop-plants in the Lesser Antilles. London: The West India Committee.Google Scholar
  178. Nyadanu, D., Akromah, R., Adomako, B., Kwoseh, C., Lowor, S. T., Dzahini-Obiatey, H., Akrofi, A. Y., & Assuah, M. K. (2012). Inheritance and general combining ability studies of detached pod, leaf disc and natural field resistance to Phytophthora palmivora and Phytophthora megakarya in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.). Euphytica, 188(2), 253–264. doi: 10.1007/s10681-012-0717-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Nyadanu, D., Assuah, M. K., Adomako, B., Opoku, A. Y., Opoku, I. Y., & Adu-Ampomah, Y. (2009). Efficacy of screening methods used in breeding for black pod disease resistance varieties in cocoa. African Crop Science Journal, 17(4), 175–186.Google Scholar
  180. Nyassé, S., Bidzanga Nomo, L., Blaha, G., Flament, M., Berry, D. & Cilas, C. (1996). Update on the work on selection of cocoa for resistance to Phytophthora spp. in Cameroon. Proceedings. In International Workshop on the Contribution of Disease Resistance to Cocoa Variety Improvement. Salvador, BA (Brasil). 24–26 Nov 1996.Google Scholar
  181. Nyassé, S., Cilas, C., Hérail, C., & Blaha, G. (1995). Leaf inoculation as an early screening test for cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) resistance to Phytophthora black pod disease. Crop Protection, 14(8), 657–663.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Oh, E., & Parke, J. L. (2012) Phytophthora katsurae. Forest Phytophthoras 2(1). doi: 10.5399/osu/fp.2.1.3046. http://journals.oregondigital.org/ForestPhytophthora/article/view/katsurae/2731
  183. Okaisabor, E. K. (1969). The survival of P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. through the dry season. Nigerian Agricultural Journal, 6, 85–89.Google Scholar
  184. Okaisabor, E. K. (1971). The mechanism of initiation of Phytophthora pod rot epiphytotics. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana, 23–29 November, 1969, pp. 398–404.Google Scholar
  185. Okey, E. N. (1996) Histopathological and biochemical studies on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) canker caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butler. Ph.D. Thesis, Department Plant Science, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.Google Scholar
  186. Okey, E. N., Duncan, E. J., Sirju-Charran, G., & Sreenivasan, T. N. (1994). Histopathological studies of Phytophthora infection on cocoa stem in Trinidad. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Côte d’Ivoire, 18–24 July 1993, pp. 61–65.Google Scholar
  187. Onesirosan, P. T. (1971). The survival of Phytophthora palmivora in a cocoa plantation during the dry season. Phytopathology, 61, 975–977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Opeke, L. K., & Gorenz, A. M. (1974). Phytophthora pod rot: Symptoms and economic importance. In P. H. Gregory (Ed.), Phytophthora diseases of cocoa (pp. 117–124). London: Longman Group (Far East) Limited.Google Scholar
  189. Orellana, R. G. (1953). Infection and tissue change of Theobroma cacao L. by P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. Turrialba, 4, 167–172.Google Scholar
  190. Orellana, R. G. (1954) Growth of Phytophthora palmivora of cacao in liquid media containing cacao shell from different clones as a basis for assessment of resistance. In: Proceedings of Conference on Interamericano del Cacao, Turrialba, Costa Rica, 1954, Fitopathologia, vol 1, Doc. 29, 3.Google Scholar
  191. Orellana, R. G. (1959). Variation in Phytophthora palmivora isolates from cacao and rubber. Phytopathology, 49, 210–213.Google Scholar
  192. Oudemans, P., & Coffey, M. D. (1991a). Isozyme comparison within and among worldwide sources of three morphologically distinct species of Phytophthora. Mycological Research, 95 (1), 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Oudemans, P., & Coffey, M. D. (1991b). A revised systematics of twelve papillate Phytophthora species based on isozyme analysis. Mycological Research, 95(9), 1025–1046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Oudemans, P., & Coffey, M. D. (1991c). Relationships between Phytophthora species: Evidence from isozyme analysis. In J. A. Lucas, R. C. Shattock, D. S. Shaw, & L. R. Cooke (Eds.), Phytophthora (pp. 184–203). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  195. Oudemans, P., Forster, H., & Coffey, M. D. (1994). Evidence for distinct isozyme subgroups within Phytophthora citricola and close relationships with P. capsici and P. citrophthora. Mycological Research, 98, 189–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Owen, H. (1951). Cocoa pod diseases in West Africa. Annals of Applied Biology, 38, 715–718.Google Scholar
  197. Partiot, M. (1975). Horizontal resistance in cacao to Phytophthora sp. Methods of early evaluation. Café Cacao Thé, 19, 123–136.Google Scholar
  198. Pennycook, S. R. (2012). Phytophthora castaneae, the correct name for P. katsurae nom. nov. superfl. Mycotaxon, 121, 327–331. http://dx.doi.org/10.5248/121.327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Percival, M. (2015) Cocoa-nomics: Why cocoa doesn’t really grow on trees. The CNN Freedom Project-Ending Modern Day Slavery. http://edition.cnn.com/2014/02/13/world/africa/cocoa-nomics-does-chocolate-grow-on-trees/. Updated 1103 GMT (1803 HKT) April 3, 2015. Accessed online: 23rd April, 2015.
  200. Pereira, J. L. (1985). Chemical control of pod rot in Brazil. Cocoa Growers’ Bulletin, 36, 23–38.Google Scholar
  201. Peter, P. K., & Chandramohan, R. (2014). Integrated management of black pod disease of cocoa caused by Phytophthora palmivora. International Journal of Plant Protection, 7(1), 107–110.Google Scholar
  202. Pinto, L. R. M., Silva, S. D. V. M., & Yamada, M. M. (2007). Evaluation of phenotypic stability of resistance to Phytophthora spp. in cacao clones. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 32, 453–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Prendergast, W. N. E. (1965). Studies in the resistance of Theobroma cacao L. to P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Plant Science, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago.Google Scholar
  204. Prendergast, W. N. E., Spence, J. A. (1967). A contribution to the study of the resistance of Theobroma cacao L. to Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl. In: Proceedings of the International Cocoa Conference, Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire, 15–20 November, 1965, pp. 212–216.Google Scholar
  205. Prior, C. (1981) Phytophthora bark canker of cocoa in Papua New Guinea. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Cocoa Research Conference, Douala, Cameroon, 5–12 November, 1979, pp. 272–275.Google Scholar
  206. Prior, C., & Sitapi, E. (1980). Resistance of clonal cocoa in Papua New Guinea to bark canker caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 57(2), 167–169.Google Scholar
  207. Prior, C., & Smith, E. S. C. (1982). Control of bark canker in cocoa with metalaxyl. Tropical Pest Management, 28, 45–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Quesada-Ocampo, L. M., Granke, L. L., Mercier, M. R., Olsen, J., & Hausbeck, M. K. (2011). Investigating the genetic structure of Phytophthora capsici populations. Phytopathology, 101, 1061–1073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Reinking, O. A. (1923). Comparative study of Phytophthora faberi on coconut and cacao in the Philippine islands. Journal of Agricultural Research, 25(6), 267–284.Google Scholar
  210. Ribeiro, O. (2013). A historical perspective of Phytophthora. In K. Lamour (Ed.), Phytophthora: A global perspective. Wallingford: CAB International.Google Scholar
  211. Ristaino, J. B. (1990). Intraspecific variation among isolates of Phytophthora capsici from pepper and cucurbit fields in North Carolina. Phytopathology, 80, 1253–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Ristaino, J. B. (2002). Tracking historic migrations of the Irish potato famine pathogen, Phytophthora infestans. Microbes and Infection, 4(13), 1369–1377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Robertson, F. A. (1986). Studies on infection and rate of development of Phytophthora palmivora (Butler) Butler on cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) stem. Final Year Project Report, Department of Crop Science, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.Google Scholar
  214. Rocha, H. M., & Machado, A. D. (1972). Control of cacao black pod disease. Revista Theobroma (Brazil), 2(2), 15–26.Google Scholar
  215. Rocha, H. M., Mariano, A. H. (1969). Selécao de cultivares de cacao resistentes a P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Cocoa Research Conference, Salvador e Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil, 19–26 November 1967, pp. 166–169.Google Scholar
  216. Rocha, H. M., & Medeiros, A. G. (1969). Bases para a selecao de cultivares de cacao resistentes a P. palmivora. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Cocoa Research Conference, Salvador e Itabuna, Bahia, Brazil, 19–26 November, 1967, pp. 150–155.Google Scholar
  217. Rocha, H. M., Vello, F. (1971). Estudos sobre Resistencia do cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) a P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Cocoa Research Conference, Accra, Ghana, 23–29 November 1969, pp. 430–438.Google Scholar
  218. Rorer, J. B. (1910). Pod rot, canker and chupon wilt of cacao caused by Phytophthora sp. Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture of Trinidad and Tobago, 9, 79–121.Google Scholar
  219. Rosenbaum, J. (1917). Studies of the Genus Phytophthora. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 3, 159–163.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Russell, T. A. (1953). The spacing of Nigerian cacao. Empire Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 21, 145–153.Google Scholar
  221. Sansome, E., Brasier, C. M., & Griffin, M. J. (1975). Chromosome size difference in Phytophthora palmivora, a pathogen of cocoa. Nature (London), 255, 704–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Sarejanni, J. A. (1936). La pourriture du Collet des Solanées cultivees et la classification du genre Phytophthora (A collar rot of cultivated Solanum and the classification of the genus Phytophthora). Annals of Phytopathology Benaki, Greece, 2, 35–52 (In French).Google Scholar
  223. Savage, E. J., Clayton, C. W., Hunter, J. H., Brenneman, J. A., Laviola, C., & Gallegly, M. E. (1968). Homothallism, heterothallism, and interspecific hybridization in the genus Phytophthora. Phytopathology, 58, 1004–1021.Google Scholar
  224. Schena, L., & Cooke, D. E. L. (2006). Assessing the potential of regions of the nuclear and mitochondrial genome to develop a “molecular tool box” for the detection and characterization of Phytophthora species. Journal Microbiological Methods, 67, 70–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Schumann, G. L., & D’Arcy, C. J. (2012). Hungry planet stories of plant diseases. St. Paul, MN: The American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
  226. Siller, F. L., & McLaughlin, J. (1950). A method of evaluating fungicides for the control of Phytophthora palmivora Butl. on Theobroma cacao L. Cacao, 2(10), 1–3.Google Scholar
  227. Sitapai, E. C. (1989). Studies on resistance in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) to Phytophthora palmivora (Butler) Butler. M.Phil. Thesis, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.Google Scholar
  228. Slusher, R. L., Haas, D. L., Carothers, Z. B., & Sinclair, J. B. (1974). Ultrastructure at the host-parasite interface of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae in soybean rootlets. Phytopathology, 64, 834–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Slusher, R. L., & Sinclair, J. B. (1973). Development of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae in soybean roots. Phytopathology, 63, 1168–1171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Smith, J. J., & Flood, J. (2001). Epidemiology and population structure of Phytophthora species causing disease of coconut in Indonesia. Final Technical Report [DFID RNRKS CPP R6766].Google Scholar
  231. Smith, R. E., & Smith, E. H. (1906). A new fungus of economic importance. Botanical Gautte, 42, 215–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Spence, J. A. (1959). The problem of P. palmivora on the cocoa plant. Journal of Agricultural Science (Trinidad), 59, 97–111.Google Scholar
  233. Sreenivasan, T. N. (1975). A new Phytophthora. Annual Report, Cocoa Research Unit. St. Augustine, Trinidad. p. 20.Google Scholar
  234. Sreenivasan, T. N. (1977). A new method for screening for resistance to P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Cocoa Research Conference, Ibadan, Nigeria, 1–9 September 1975, pp. 435–438.Google Scholar
  235. Sreenivasan, T. N. (1981). A new approach for the control of black pod disease of cocoa. CRU paper, Cocoa Research Unit, The University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad.Google Scholar
  236. Sreenivasan, T. N. (1985). A rapid method of inoculation of P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. on attached pods. In: Proceeding of the 9th International Cocoa Research Conference, Lomé, Togo, 12–18 February 1984, pp. 385–388.Google Scholar
  237. Sreenivasan, T. N., Petit, T. R., & Rudgard, S. A. (1990). An alternative method of applying copper to control cocoa disease. Brighton Crop Protection Conference Pests and Diseases, pp. 583–588.Google Scholar
  238. Sreenivasan, T. N., & Quesnel, V. C. (1977). Field differentiation of black pod from other cocoa pod diseases. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 54, 371–372.Google Scholar
  239. Stack, J. P., & Miller, R. L. (1985). Relative survival potential of propagules of Phytophthora megasperma f.sp. medicaginis. Phytopathology, 75, 1398–1404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Stamps, D. J., Waterhouse, G. M., Newhook, F. J., & Hall, G. S. (1990). Revised tabular key to the species of Phytophthora. Mycological Papers, no. 162. International Mycological Institute, Kew, England.Google Scholar
  241. Steer, J., & Coates-Beckford, P. L. (1991). Papel de la Phytophthora katsurae, P. palmivora, Thielaviopsis paradoxa y Enterobacter sp. En la pudrición de cogollo de los cocoteros en Jamaica [sic]. Revista Palmas, 12(4), 35–45.Google Scholar
  242. Surujdeo-Maharaj, S., Umaharan, P., & Iwaro, A. D. (2001). A study of genotype-isolate interaction in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.): Resistance of cacao genotypes to isolates of Phytophthora palmivora. Euphytica, 118, 295–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Tahi, M., Kebe, I., Eskes, A. B., Ouattara, S., Sangare, A., & Mondeil, F. (2000). Rapid screening of cacao genotypes for field resistance to Phytophthora palmivora using leaves, twigs and roots. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 106, 87–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Tanaka, T. (1920). New Japanese fungi: Notes and translations: VIII. Mycologia, 12(1), 25–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Tarjot, M. (1965). Etude de la resistence des cacaoyers a la pourriture brune des cabosses due au P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. en Côte d’Ivoire: Iere partie: Inoculations experimentales par blessure et par fragment de culture. Café Cacao Thé, 9, 126–133.Google Scholar
  246. Tarjot, M. (1967). Etude de la resistence des cacaoyers a la pourriture des cabosses due au P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. en Côte d’Ivoire, Deuxieme partie: inoculations experimentales au laboratoire par depot d’une goutte de suspension de zoospores sur la cabosse sans blessure. Café Cacao Thé, 11, 3–13.Google Scholar
  247. Tarjot, M. (1969). Etude de la resistence des cacaoyers a la pourriture des cabosses due au P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl. en Côte d’Ivoire: Troisieme partie: inoculations experimentales sur le terrain. Café Cacao Thé, 13, 297–309.Google Scholar
  248. Thévenin, J., Umaharan, R., & Butler, D. (2006). Review of resistance screening of cocoa seedlings and clones to witches’ broom disease: Methods, problems and correlation with field results. The experience of the Cocoa Research Unit, Trinidad. In: Eskes, A. B., & Efron, Y. (Eds.), Global Approaches to Cocoa Germplasm Utilization and Conservation Final report of the CFC/ICCO/IPGRI project on “Cocoa Germplasm Utilization and Conservation: a Global Approach” (1998–2004). CFC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands/ICCO, London, UK/IPGRI, Rome, Italy. CFC Technical Paper 50: 137–145.Google Scholar
  249. Thines, M. (2014). Phylogeny and evolution of plant pathogenic oomycetes—a global overview. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 138(3), 431–447.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Thomas, K. M., Ramakrishnan, T. S., Soumini, C. K., & Balakrishnan, M. S. (1948). Studies in the genus Phytophthora. I. Oospore formation and taxonomy of Phytophthora palmivora. Butl. Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Sciences Series B, 26, 147–163.Google Scholar
  251. Thorold, C. A. (1952). Airborne dispersal of Phytophthora palmivora causing black pod disease of Theobroma cacao L. Nature, 170, 718–719.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. Thorold, C. A. (1953) The control of black pod disease of cocoa in the Western Region of Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the Cacao Conference London 1953. London: Cocoa, Chocolate and Confectionery Alliance, pp. 108–115.Google Scholar
  253. Thorold, C. A. (1955). Observations on black pod disease (P. palmivora) of cacao in Nigeria. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 38, 435–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. Thorold, C. A. (1959). Methods of controlling black pod disease caused by P. palmivora of Theobroma cacao in Nigeria. Annals of Applied Biology, 47, 708–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. Thorold, C. A. (1975). Diseases of Cocoa. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  256. Tokunaga, J., & Bartnicki-Garcia, S. (1971). Structure and differentiation of the cell wall of Phytophthora palmivora: cysts, hyphae and sporangia. Archives of Microbiology, 79(4), 293–310.Google Scholar
  257. Tondje, P. R., Berry, D., Bakala, J., & Ebandan, S. (1994). Value of various cultivation practices in controlling black pod in cacao caused by Phytophthora spp. in Cameroon. In: Proceedings of the 11th International Cocoa Research Conference, Côte d’Ivoire, 18–24 July 1993, pp. 175–183.Google Scholar
  258. Toxopeus, H., & Gorenz, A. M. (1969). Phytophthora pod rot: a routine screening technique for resistance. Report of the Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria 1968-69, pp. 109–110.Google Scholar
  259. Troung, N. V., Liew, E. C. Y., & Burgess, L. W. (2010). Characterisation of Phytophthora capsici isolates from black pepper in Vietnam. Fungal Biology, 114, 160–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Tucker, C. M. (1931). Taxonomy of the genus Phytophthora de Bary. University of Missouri Agriculture Experimental Station Bulletin, 153, 1–208.Google Scholar
  261. Turner, P. D. (1961). Strains of Phytophthora palmivora Butl. (Butl.) from Theobroma cacao L. II. Isolates from non-African countries. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 44, 409–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Turner, P. D. (1962). Black pod disease: Resistance and tolerance, laboratory studies. Report West African Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana 1960-61, pp. 29–32.Google Scholar
  263. Turner, P. D. (1963a). Black pod disease: resistance and tolerance, laboratory studies. Report West African Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana 1961-62, pp. 21–25.Google Scholar
  264. Turner, P. D. (1963b). Influence of root exudates of cacao and other plants on spore development of P. palmivora. Phytopathology 53: 1337–1339.Google Scholar
  265. Turner, P. D., & Asomaning, E. J. A. (1962). Root infection of Theobroma cacao L. by P. palmivora. Tropical Agriculture (Trinidad), 39, 339–343.Google Scholar
  266. Turner, P. D., & Asomaning, E. J. A. (1963). Root infection of cocoa by Phytophthora palmivora Butl. Report of the West African Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana 1961-62, pp. 25–27.Google Scholar
  267. Umaharan, P. (2014). Leveraging the International Cocoa Gene Bank to Improve Competitiveness of the Cocoa Sector in the Caribbean, Using Modern Genomics. Progress Report, September 2014, The UWI-Trinidad and Tobago Research and Development Impact Fund.Google Scholar
  268. Urquhart, D. J. (1961). Cocoa. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  269. Van der Molen, G. E. (1971). Zoospore encystment in Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) De Bary, Ph.D. Thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa.Google Scholar
  270. Van der Plank, J. E. (1963). Plant diseases: Epidemics and control. New York: Academic.Google Scholar
  271. Venkatarayan, S. V. (1932). Phytophthora arecae parasitic on areca tops and a strain of P. palmivora (Butl.) (P. faberi Maubl.) on a new host, Aleurites fordii. Phytopathology, 22, 217–227.Google Scholar
  272. Vernon, A. J. (1966). The incidence of black pod at Tafo in 1965. 2nd Session Technical Working Party on Cacao Production, FAO, Rome.Google Scholar
  273. Vernon, A. J. (1971). Canker: the forgotten disease of cocoa. Cocoa Growers’ Bulletin, 16, 9–14.Google Scholar
  274. Vernon, A. J. (1977). Yield of cocoa farms with and without fungicide spray to control black pod disease. Fiji Agricultural Journal, 39(2), 111.Google Scholar
  275. Villa, N. O., Kageyama, K., Asano, T., & Suga, H. (2006). Phylogenetic relationships of Pythium and Phytophthora species based on ITS rDNA, cytochrome oxidase II and betatubulin sequences. Mycologia, 98, 410–422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Von Faber, F. C. (1907). Bericht über die pflanzenpathologische expedition nach Kamerun. Der Tropen, 11, 735–775.Google Scholar
  277. Walker, C. A., & van West, P. (2007). Zoospore development in the oomycetes. Fungal Biology Reviews, 21(1), 10–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Waterhouse, G. M. (1963). Key to the species of Phytophthora de Bary. Mycological Papers, no. 92. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, England.Google Scholar
  279. Waterhouse, G. M. (1970). The genus Phytophthora de Bary. Mycological Papers, 122, 1–59.Google Scholar
  280. Waterhouse, G. M. (1974a). Other Phytophthora species recorded on cacao. In P. H. Gregory (Ed.), Phytophthora disease of cocoa (pp. 71–79). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  281. Waterhouse, G. M. (1974b). Phytophthora palmivora and some related species. In P. H. Gregory (Ed.), Phytophthora disease of cocoa (pp. 51–70). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  282. Weir, B. S., Paderes, E. P., Anand, N., Uchida, J. Y., Pennycook, S. R., Bellgard, S. E., & Beever, R. E. (2015). A taxonomic revision of Phytophthora Clade 5 including two new species, Phytophthora agathidicida and P. cocois. Phytotaxa, 205(1), 21–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.205.1.2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. West, J. (1936). Black pod of cacao: Experimental control on native farms. Bulletin Department Agriculture of Nigeria, 11, 55–64.Google Scholar
  284. Weste, G. (1983). Population dynamics and survival of Phytophthora. In D. C. Erwin, S. Bartnicki-Garcia, & P. H. Tsao (Eds.), Phytophthora: Its biology, taxonomy, ecology, and pathology (pp. 237–257). St. Paul, MN: American Phytopathological Society.Google Scholar
  285. Wharton, A. L. (1954). Black pod disease. Report of the West African Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana 1953-54, pp. 27–28.Google Scholar
  286. Wharton, A. L. (1957). Black pod disease – resistance and tolerance. In: Cocoa Breeding Conference, Tafo, Ghana, pp. 7–9.Google Scholar
  287. Wharton, A. L. (1959). Black pod disease. Report of the West African Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana 1957-58.Google Scholar
  288. Wharton, A. L. (1962). Black pod disease: Spraying trails against P. palmivora (Butl.) Butl.: Resistance and tolerance. Report of the West African Cocoa Research Institute of Ghana 1960-61, pp. 26–29.Google Scholar
  289. Wharton, A. L. (1974). Cushion infection. In P. H. Gregory (Ed.), Phytophthora disease of cocoa (pp. 141–148). London: Longman.Google Scholar
  290. World Cocoa Foundation. (2012). Cocoa Market Update. Complied by the World Cocoa Foundation. ICE Market Data. https://www.theice.com/marketdata/reports/ReportCenter.shtml
  291. Zaiger, D., & Zentmyer, G. A. (1965). Phytophthora canker of cacao in the Caroline Islands. Plant Disease Reporter, 49, 565–567.Google Scholar
  292. Zentmyer, G. A. (1966). Role of amino acids in chemotaxis of zoospores of three species of Phytophthora (Abstr.). Phytopathology, 56, 907.Google Scholar
  293. Zentmyer, G. A. (1968). Resistance of cacao to P. palmivora. Turrialba, 13, 14–15.Google Scholar
  294. Zentmyer, G. A. (1969). Resistance of cacao to Phytophthora palmivora. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Cocoa Research Conference. Salvador e Itabuna, Bahia, Brasil, 19–26 November, 1967, pp. 147–148.Google Scholar
  295. Zentmyer, G. A. (1972). Resistance of cacao to Phytophthora palmivora. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Cocoa Research Conference. St. Augustine, Trinidad, 8–18 January, 1972, pp. 469–470.Google Scholar
  296. Zentmyer, G. A. (1974). Variation, genetics and geographical distribution of mating types. In P. H. Gregory (Ed.), Phytophthora disease of cocoa. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  297. Zentmyer, G. A. (1976). Distribution of the A’ mating type of Phytophthora cinnamomi. Phytopathology, 66, 701–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Zentmyer, G. A. (1983). The world of Phytophthora. In D. C. Erwin, S. Bartnicki-Garcia, & P. H. Tsao (Eds.), Phytophthora, its biology, taxonomy, ecology and pathology (pp. 1–8). St. Paul, MN: APS.Google Scholar
  299. Zentmyer, G. A. (1988a). Origin and distribution of four species of Phytophthora. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 91, 367–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. Zentmyer, G. A. (1988b). Taxonomic relationships and distribution of species of Phytophthora causing black pod rot of cacao. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Cocoa Research Conference, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. 17–23 May, 1987, Cocoa Producers Alliance, London, pp. 391–395.Google Scholar
  301. Zentmyer, G. A., Kaosiri, T., Idosu, G. O., Kellman, M. K. (1981). Morphological Forms of Phytophthora palmivora. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Cocoa Research Conference, 4–12 November 1979, Douala, Cameroun, pp. 291–296.Google Scholar
  302. Zentmyer, G. A., Kaosiri, T., & Idosu, G. (1977). Taxonomic variants in the Phytophthora palmivora complex. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 69, 329–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Zentmyer, G. A., Mircetich, S. M., & Mitchell, D. J. (1968). Tests for resistance of cacao to Phytophthora palmivora. Plant Disease Reporter, 52, 790–791.Google Scholar
  304. Zentmyer, G. A., & Mitchell, D. M. (1970). Distribution of mating types of Phytophthora palmivora (Abstract). Phytopathology, 60, 1543.Google Scholar
  305. Zentmyer, G. A., Mitchell, D. J., Jefferson, L., Roheim, J., & Carnes, D. (1973). Distribution of mating types of Phytophthora palmivora. Phytopathology, 63, 663–667.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Zhang, Z. G., Zhang, J. Y., Zheng, X. B., Yang, Y. W., & Ko, W. H. (2004). Molecular distinctions between Phytophthora capsici and Ph. tropicalis based on ITS sequences of ribosomal DNA. Journal of Phytopathology, 152(6), 358–364. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0434.2004.00856.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Surujdeo-Maharaj
    • 1
    Email author
  • T. N. Sreenivasan
    • 1
  • L. A. Motilal
    • 1
  • P. Umaharan
    • 1
  1. 1.Cocoa Research Centre, The University of the West IndiesSt. AugustineTrinidad and Tobago

Personalised recommendations