Cacao Diseases pp 337-358 | Cite as

Cacao Swollen Shoot Virus (CSSV): History, Biology, and Genome

  • Emmanuelle MullerEmail author


Cacao swollen shoot virus (CSSV) is the only virus disease of cacao that is prevalent and damaging. CSSV is a dsDNA virus of the genus Badnavirus and the family Caulimoviridae transmitted by several species of mealybugs. The historical emergence of the disease is closely associated with the establishment of cacao cultivation in West Africa as it appeared soon after the introduction of the cacao in West Africa and remains endemic to this area. The disease is likely due to several host shifts from indigenous hosts. We can additionally conclude from the high molecular variability of the virus that the disease consists of a complex of viral species. Although the disease spreads slowly, eradication campaigns have failed to contain the disease which continues to emerge in new West African regions.


Ivory Coast Citrus Tristeza Virus Cacao Tree Eradication Campaign Mild Strain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I wish to thank Mike Thresh for the numerous interesting discussions that help me approaching the problem of CSSV in its entirety. I thank Colin Campbell who helped me to write the tribute to Mike Thresh as an introduction of this chapter. I am grateful to Komlan Wegbe, Ekemini Obok, Francis Abrokwah and Henry Dzahini-Obiatey for giving to me some unpublished information. 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UMR BGPICIRADMontpellier Cedex 5France

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