A Self-organizing Approach: Time Synchronization for the HeNodeBs in Heterogeneous Network
In Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) for LTE/LTE-A system femtocells (HeNodeBs) are designed and implemented to extend coverage and capacity. The arbitrary usage of HeNodeBs supported for indoor coverage is linked through a third-party internet backhaul to the HeNodeB managing server, and this is a segment of the operators end. To sustain HeNodeBs to the control function IEEE1588, master slave strategy is put in effect. Nevertheless, caused by the absence of internet or unfortunate connectivity for a prolonged period HeNodeBs undergoes synchronization difficulties that leads to frequency mismatch With this paper, a kind of self-organizing method is suggested for time synchronization in Heterogeneous Network, and that is standardized using IEEE1588 master slave method along with Precision Timing Protocol (PTP). The proposed approach is two way message transmission system, adopting the Least-squares Linear Regression Algorithm (LSRA) to reduce offsets as well as frequency misalignments (drift).
KeywordsFemtocell Synchronization Heterogeneous network LTE/LTE-Advanced IEEE 1588 HeNodeB
A special thanks to Ministry of Education for the education sponsorship, and thanks to Research Management Center (RMC), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).
- 1.Hasan, M.K., Ismail, A.F., Abdalla Khaizuran, A.H., Abdullah, K., Ramli, H.A.M.: Performance analysis of interference coordination techniques in heterogeneous network (2014)Google Scholar
- 2.Pesyna K.M., Wesson, K.D., Heath, R.W., Humphreys, T.E.: Extending the reach of GPS-assisted HeNodeB synchronization and localization through tightly-coupled opportunistic navigation. IEEE Int. Workshop HeNodeB Netw. 242–247 (2011). doi: 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2011.6162445
- 3.Okada, M., Hara, T., Saitue, N., Wada, T.: Frame synchronization among base stations for TDD systems, In: 4th International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing (ISCCSP). IEEE, pp. 1–4 (2010). doi: 10.1109/ISCCSP.2010.5463476
- 4.Hasan, M.K., Saeed, R.A., Hashim, A.H.A., Islam, S., Alsaqour, R.A., Alahdal, T.A.: Femtocell network time synchronization protocols and schemes. Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol. 4(23), 5136–5143 (2012)Google Scholar
- 5.HetNet Synchronization, Online [available]: http://www.qulsar.com/Applications/Telecommunications_and_Networks/HetNets.html
- 6.Andre, V., Dominik, S., Clock synchronization in telecommunications via PTP (IEEE 1588). In: IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 334–341 (2007). doi: 10.1109/FREQ.2007.4319093
- 7.Vallat, A., Schneuwly, D.: Clock synchronization in telecommunications via PTP (IEEE 1588). In: Frequency Control Symposium, 2007 Joint with the 21st European Frequency and Time Forum. IEEE International. IEEE, pp. 334–341 (2007)Google Scholar
- 9.Shao-Yu, L., Lee, H., Sung-Yin, S., Chen, P., Kwang-Cheng. C.: Network synchronization among femtocells, IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 248–253 (2011). doi: 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2011.6162446
- 10.Wang, Y., Pedersen, K.I.: Performance analysis of enhanced inter-cell interference coordination in LTE-aAdvanced heterogeneous networks. IEEE VTC Spring, pp. 1–5 (2012)Google Scholar
- 12.Kaushik, G., Prasad, V.: Network time synchronization in time division—LTE systems, MS thesis, School of Electrical Engineering Aalto University, Finland (2013)Google Scholar
- 13.Peng, J., Li, Z., Mclernon, D., Jibo, W.: Mobile station assisted receiver-receiver time synchronization scheme for HeNodeBs. In: IEEE Conference on Vehicular Technology. pp. 1–5 (2011). doi: 10.1109/VETECS.2011.5956752