A Self-organizing Approach: Time Synchronization for the HeNodeBs in Heterogeneous Network

  • Mohammad Kamrul HasanEmail author
  • A. F. Ismail
  • Aisha H. Abdalla
  • H. A. M. Ramli
  • Wahidah Hashim
  • Abdur Razzaque
  • M. H. Khairolanuar
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering book series (LNEE, volume 362)


In Heterogeneous Network (HetNet) for LTE/LTE-A system femtocells (HeNodeBs) are designed and implemented to extend coverage and capacity. The arbitrary usage of HeNodeBs supported for indoor coverage is linked through a third-party internet backhaul to the HeNodeB managing server, and this is a segment of the operators end. To sustain HeNodeBs to the control function IEEE1588, master slave strategy is put in effect. Nevertheless, caused by the absence of internet or unfortunate connectivity for a prolonged period HeNodeBs undergoes synchronization difficulties that leads to frequency mismatch With this paper, a kind of self-organizing method is suggested for time synchronization in Heterogeneous Network, and that is standardized using IEEE1588 master slave method along with Precision Timing Protocol (PTP). The proposed approach is two way message transmission system, adopting the Least-squares Linear Regression Algorithm (LSRA) to reduce offsets as well as frequency misalignments (drift).


Femtocell Synchronization Heterogeneous network LTE/LTE-Advanced IEEE 1588 HeNodeB 



A special thanks to Ministry of Education for the education sponsorship, and thanks to Research Management Center (RMC), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM).


  1. 1.
    Hasan, M.K., Ismail, A.F., Abdalla Khaizuran, A.H., Abdullah, K., Ramli, H.A.M.: Performance analysis of interference coordination techniques in heterogeneous network (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pesyna K.M., Wesson, K.D., Heath, R.W., Humphreys, T.E.: Extending the reach of GPS-assisted HeNodeB synchronization and localization through tightly-coupled opportunistic navigation. IEEE Int. Workshop HeNodeB Netw. 242–247 (2011). doi: 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2011.6162445
  3. 3.
    Okada, M., Hara, T., Saitue, N., Wada, T.: Frame synchronization among base stations for TDD systems, In: 4th International Symposium on Communications, Control and Signal Processing (ISCCSP). IEEE, pp. 1–4 (2010). doi: 10.1109/ISCCSP.2010.5463476
  4. 4.
    Hasan, M.K., Saeed, R.A., Hashim, A.H.A., Islam, S., Alsaqour, R.A., Alahdal, T.A.: Femtocell network time synchronization protocols and schemes. Res. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Technol. 4(23), 5136–5143 (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Andre, V., Dominik, S., Clock synchronization in telecommunications via PTP (IEEE 1588). In: IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium, pp. 334–341 (2007). doi: 10.1109/FREQ.2007.4319093
  7. 7.
    Vallat, A., Schneuwly, D.: Clock synchronization in telecommunications via PTP (IEEE 1588). In: Frequency Control Symposium, 2007 Joint with the 21st European Frequency and Time Forum. IEEE International. IEEE, pp. 334–341 (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sungwon, L.: An enhanced IEEE 1588 time synchronization algorithm for asymmetric communication link using block burst transmission. IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(9), 687–689 (2008). doi: 10.1109/LCOMM.2008.080824 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shao-Yu, L., Lee, H., Sung-Yin, S., Chen, P., Kwang-Cheng. C.: Network synchronization among femtocells, IEEE GLOBECOM, pp. 248–253 (2011). doi: 10.1109/GLOCOMW.2011.6162446
  10. 10.
    Wang, Y., Pedersen, K.I.: Performance analysis of enhanced inter-cell interference coordination in LTE-aAdvanced heterogeneous networks. IEEE VTC Spring, pp. 1–5 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sahin, M.E., Guvenc, I., Moo-Ryong, J., Arslan, H.: Handling CCI and ICI in OFDMA femtocell networks through frequency scheduling. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron. 55(4), 1936–1944 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kaushik, G., Prasad, V.: Network time synchronization in time division—LTE systems, MS thesis, School of Electrical Engineering Aalto University, Finland (2013)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peng, J., Li, Z., Mclernon, D., Jibo, W.: Mobile station assisted receiver-receiver time synchronization scheme for HeNodeBs. In: IEEE Conference on Vehicular Technology. pp. 1–5 (2011). doi: 10.1109/VETECS.2011.5956752
  14. 14.
    Kerö, N., Müller, T., Kernen, T., Deniaud, M.: Analysis of precision time protocol (PTP) locking time on non-PTP networks for generator locking over IP. SMPTE Motion Imaging J. 123(2), 37–47 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Exel, R.: Mitigation of asymmetric link delays in IEEE 1588 clock synchronization systems. IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(3), 507–510 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Kamrul Hasan
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. F. Ismail
    • 1
  • Aisha H. Abdalla
    • 1
  • H. A. M. Ramli
    • 1
  • Wahidah Hashim
    • 2
  • Abdur Razzaque
    • 3
  • M. H. Khairolanuar
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Computer EngineeringInternational Islamic UniversityOmbakMalaysia
  2. 2.College of Information TechnologyUniversiti Tenaga NasionalKajangMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of DhakaDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations