Introduction: The New Era of Restriction

  • David L. Leal
  • Nestor P. Rodríguez
  • Gary P. Freeman
Part of the Immigrants and Minorities, Politics and Policy book series (IMPP)


We live in a paradoxical “Age of Migration” (Castles and Miller 2009) that is characterized by both unprecedented levels of migration and (perhaps not coincidentally) considerable public and political skepticism about migration and migrants. Globally, the number of people on the move is large and growing. According to the United Nations, the total number of international migrants in 2013 was 232 million. This constitutes 3.2 % of the world’s population, and if migrants constituted their own nation, it would be the fifth largest. At the same time, public and political reactions against immigrants have grown across the global north.


European Union Immigration Policy Return Migration Homeland Security Obama Administration 
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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • David L. Leal
    • 1
  • Nestor P. Rodríguez
    • 1
  • Gary P. Freeman
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GovernmentThe University of Texas at AustinAustinUSA
  2. 2.AustinUSA

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