Measuring Markets That Supply Cash-Based Humanitarian Interventions

  • Laura Rock KopczakEmail author
  • Gregory Matthews
Part of the International Series in Operations Research & Management Science book series (ISOR)


The humanitarian sector is rapidly shifting to a new business model that combines a high reliance on cash-based interventions with traditional goods distributions for humanitarian response. While one reason that agencies are shifting to “cash” is to contribute to recovery, growth and resilience of local markets, measurement of the effect of interventions on markets is not commonly done. This chapter focuses on how to harness lessons from commercial and global health supply chain performance measurement models to better inform how humanitarian actors measure markets and/or supply chains that support new cash-based initiatives in emergencies. We approach this question by first describing the shift to cash and reviewing recent literature on measurement of supply chains and markets. Next we review three existing models of supply chains/markets that may be relevant to this discussion. We then examine and contrast several case studies of cash-based market interventions used in emergency responses in the Philippines, Jordan, Lebanon, Haiti, and the Sahel. Finally, we pull these threads together by revisiting the three supply chain models and providing insights on measures for markets that supply cash-based interventions.


Humanitarian logistics Cash programs Performance measures KPIs Case studies EMMA analysis Market systems Cash-based interventions Value for money 


  1. Abidi H, de Leeuw S, Klumpp (2013, Aug) Measuring success in humanitarian supply chains. Int J Bus Manage Innov 2(8)Google Scholar
  2. Andersen MB (1999) Do no harm: how aid can support peace or war. Lynne Rienner Publishers, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  3. Austin L, Chessex S (2013) Minimum requirements for analysis of markets in emergencies. Cash Learning Partnership, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  4. Beamon BM, Balcik B (2008) Performance measurement in humanitarian relief chains. Int J Public Sect Manage 21(1):4–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brady C (2012, Jan) An emergency market mapping analysis case study: changing responses to the Haiti earthquake. Oxfam. Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  6. Cash Learning Partnership (2015) Scoping study-emergency cash transfer programming in the WaSH and shelter sectors.
  7. Cuny FC, Hill RB (1999) Famine, conflict and response. Kumarian Press, West HartfordGoogle Scholar
  8. De Leeuw S (2010) Towards a reference mission map for performance measurement in humanitarian supply chains. in Collaborative Networks for a Sustainable World, edited by L.M. Camarinha-Matos, X. Boucher and H. Afsarmanesh, 11th IFIP WG 5.5 Working Conference on Virtual Enterprises, PRO-VE 2010, St. Etienne, France, October 11-13, 2010. Proceedings. pp 181–188Google Scholar
  9. DeToni A, Tonchia S (2001) Performance measurement systems. Int J Oper Prod Mgt 21, pp. 46–70.Google Scholar
  10. DFID’s Approach to Value for Money (VfM) (2011, July) Department of international development. Accessed 18 Nov 2014
  11. Eisenhardt KM (1989) Building theories from case study research. Acad Manage Rev 14(4):532–550Google Scholar
  12. EMMA Toolkit (2010) Accessed 23 Nov 2014
  13. Frost LJ, Reich MR (2008) Access: how do good health technologies get to poor people in poor countries, Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, distributed by Harvard University Press.
  14. Gatignon A, Van Wassenhove LN, Charles A (2010) The Yogyakarta earthquake: humanitarian relief through IFRC’s decentralized supply chain. Int J Product Econ 126:102–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Global Logistics Cluster (2015) Unlocking cash and market-based programmes.
  16. Gunasekaran A, Kobu B (2007) Performance measures and metrics in logistics and supply chain management: a review of recent literature (1995–2004) for research and applications. Int J Product Res 45(12):2819–2840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Holguin-Veras J et al (2013) On the appropriate objective function for post-disaster logistics models. J Oper Manage 31:262–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Komrska J, Kopczak LR, Swaminathan J (2013) When supply chains save lives. Supply Chain Manage Rev 17:42–49Google Scholar
  19. Lee HL (2004) The triple-A supply chain. Harv Bus Rev 82:1–10Google Scholar
  20. Logistics Cluster (2014) The Supply Chain in Cash and Voucher Programmes, youtube video. Accessed 23 Nov 2014
  21. Oloruntoba R, Gray R (2006) Humanitarian aid: an agile supply chain. Int J Supply Chain Manage 11(2):115–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Oxfam (2013) Water market system in Balqa, Zarqa & informal settlements of Amman and the Jordan Valley—August–September 2013Google Scholar
  23. Oxfam (2014, Jan 14–18) Emergency mapping and analysis assessment: Corrugated Galvanised Iron (CGI) Market SystemGoogle Scholar
  24. Schulz SF, Heigh I (2009) Logistics performance management in action within a humanitarian organization. Manage Res News 32(11):1038–1049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sodhi MS, Tang CS (2014) Buttressing supply chains against floods in Asia for humanitarian relief and economic recovery. Production and Operations Management, Forthcoming. SSRN.
  26. Tatham P, Hughes K (2011) Humanitarian logistics metrics: where we are and how we might improve. In: Christopher M, Tatham P (eds) Humanitarian logistics. Kogen Page Limited, pp 65–84Google Scholar
  27. The IRC (2014, Aug) Emergency economies: the impact of cash assistance in Lebanon: an impact evaluation of the 2013–2014 Winter Cash Assistance Program for Syrian Refugees in Lebanon. Accessed 23 Nov 2014
  28. Tomasini R, Van Wassenhove LN (2009) Humanitarian logistics. INSEAD Business Press, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. UN Office for Project Services (2013) Annual Statistical Report on United Nations Procurement. Marmorvej 51, 2100 Copenhagen. Denmark (2014)Google Scholar
  30. United Nations (2013) Sahel regional strategy 2013. Accessed 23 Nov 2014
  31. USAID (2014) Healthy markets for global health: a market shaping primer. Accessed 23 Nov 2014
  32. World Food Program U.S.A. (2013) Famine prevented: a success story in the Sahel. Accessed 23 Nov 2014

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The MIT-Zaragoza Masters in International Logistics ProgramZaragozaSpain
  2. 2.NYU Wagner School of Public ServiceNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.IRC (International Rescue Committee)New YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations