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Spider Silks and Their Biotechnological Applications

  • Daniela Matias de C. Bittencourt
Chapter
Part of the Entomology in Focus book series (ENFO, volume 4)

Abstract

Spiders have developed specialized silks with outstanding biophysical properties over millions of years of evolution. As biopolymers composed by highly repetitive amino acid motifs, spider silks have been the focus of research for years. Due to recent advances in genetic engineering, recombinant spider silks have been produced, revealing the relationships between their protein structure and their mechanical properties. Each amino acid motif present in the silk adopts a particular secondary structure responsible for conferring a specific mechanical property to it. This feature has opened up the possibility to produce recombinant silks with controlled properties for various biotechnological applications. Moreover, spider silks are biocompatible and biodegradable biomaterials, which also allow their application in medicine. Accordingly, the relationship between molecular composition, secondary structure, and mechanical properties of spider silks is described in this chapter, along with a discussion of the current strategies for the production of recombinant spider silks, their importance in new biotechnological applications, and the current status of the field.

Keywords

Silk Fiber Amino Acid Motif Silk Protein Spider Silk Transgenic Silkworm 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

A

Amino acid alanine

CaMV

Cauliflower mosaic virus

EGFP

Enhanced green fluorescent protein

ER

Endoplasmic reticulum

Flag

Flagelliform spidroin

G

Amino acid glycine

HFIP

Hexafluoroisopropanol

MaSp1

Major ampullate spidroin 1

MaSp2

Major ampullate spidroin 2

MiSp

Minor ampullate spidroin

P

Amino acid proline

T-RNA

Transfer ribonucleic acid

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research and Development DepartmentBrazilian Agricultural Research Corporation-EmbrapaBrasíliaBrazil

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