Advertisement

Claims and Other Front of Package Information

Chapter
  • 769 Downloads
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Food, Health, and Nutrition book series (BRIEFSFOOD)

Abstract

At present, nutrition labelling is not so effective in guiding consumer purchasing behaviour because many consumers prefer a simpler way providing nutrition information which can help them in assessing nutritional characteristics of a particular foodstuff quickly. In response to the obvious need to developing a more effective presentation of nutritional information, which should convey this information in a simplified and systematic manner, manufacturers and retailers from different countries have created some systems for signalling the nutritional profile. For nutritional information of the greatest interest to be easily perceived by consumers, they have used various schemes marked on the front side of individual packages—generically called Front of package (FoP). FoP schemes of nutrition information have an important role in food choices because they reduce cost related to efforts in looking for information about nutritional properties and health effects. Given the importance arising from FoP schemes, which include nutrition and health claims as well as graphical nutrition labelling, international legislators have tried to rule these ways to present nutrition information in order to assure consumers a higher level of protection. Although created in order to facilitate healthy food choices, the effect of these FoP systems on consumers is indeed controversial.

Keywords

Nutrient Claims Consumers Health Food Products Information Labels Graphical labelling FoP 

References

  1. Albert, J. (2010). Innovations in food labelling: The food and agriculture organization of the United Nations. http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i0576e/i0576e.pdf.
  2. Aschemann-Witzel, J., & Hamm, U. (2010). Do consumers prefer foods with nutrition and health claims? Results of a purchase simulation. Journal of Marketing Communications, 16, 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asp, N. G., & Bryngelsson, S. (2008). Health claims in Europe: New legislation and PASSCLAIM for substantiation. The Journal of Nutrition, 138, 1210S–1215S.Google Scholar
  4. Balcombe, K., Fraser, I., & Di Falco, S. (2010). Traffic light and food choice: A choice experiment examining the relationship between nutritional food labels and price. Food Policy, 35, 211–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Borgmeier, I., & Westenhoefer, J. (2009). Impact of different food label formats on healthiness evaluation and food choice of consumers. BMC Public Health Journal, 9, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chan, C., Patch, C., & Williams, P. (2005). Australian consumers are sceptical about but influenced by claims about fat on food labels. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 59, 148–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Codex Alimentarius Commision. (1979). General guidelines on claims. Retrieved March 2015, from http://www.codexalimentarius.org/standards/list-of-standards/.
  8. Coronary Prevention Group. (1992). Just read the label: Understanding nutrition information in numeric, verbal and graphic format. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  9. Darby, M. R., & Karni, E. (1973). Free competition and the optimal amount of fraud. Journal of Law and Economics, 16, 67–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Drichoutis, A. C., Lazaridis, P., & Nayga, R. M. (2006). Consumers’ use of nutritional labels: a review of research studies and issues. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 9, 93–118.Google Scholar
  11. European Commission. (2000). White paper on food safety. Retrieved March 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/health_consumer/library/pub/pub06_en.pdf.
  12. European Commission. (2001). Discussion paper on nutrition claims and functional claims. Retrieved March 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/food/food/labellingnutrition/claims/claims_discussion_paper.pdf.
  13. European Commission. (2003). Proposal for a regulation of the European parliament and the council on nutrition and health claims made on food. Retrieved March 2015, from http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/fl/fl07_en.pdf.
  14. European Council. (1979). Directive 79/112/EEC of 18 december 1978 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to the labelling, presentation and advertising of foodstuffs for sale to the ultimate consumer. Official Journal of the European Communities, L. 033, 0001–0014.Google Scholar
  15. European Council. (1989). Directive of 3 May 1989 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses (89/398/EEC). Official Journal of the European Communities, L 186, 27–32.Google Scholar
  16. European Council. (1990). Directive of 24 September 1990 on nutrition labelling for foodstuffs (90/496/EEC). Official Journal of the European Communities, L.276, 40–49.Google Scholar
  17. European Council. (1994). Regulation (EC) No. 2991/94 laying down standards for spreadable fats. Official Journal of the European Communities, L.316, 02–07.Google Scholar
  18. European Food Information Council—EUFIC. (2015). Global update on nutrition labelling. Executive summary. Retrieved March 2015, from http://www.eufic.org/upl/1/default/doc/GlobalUpdateExecSumJan2015.pdf.
  19. European Heart Network (EHN) 2007. Review of “front of pack” nutrition schemes. February. http://www.ehnheart.org/publications/publications.html
  20. European Parliament and Council. (2006a). Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods. Official Journal of the European Union, L.404, 9–25.Google Scholar
  21. European Parliament and Council. (2006b). Regulation (EC) No 1925/2006 of 20 December 2006 on the addition of vitamins and minerals and of certain other substances to foods. Official Journal of the European Union, L.404, 26–38.Google Scholar
  22. European Parliament and Council. (2011). Regulation (Ec) No 1169/2011 of the European parliament and of the council of 25 October 2011 on the provision of food information to consumers, amending regulations (EC) No 1924/2006 and (EC) No 1925/2006 of the European parliament and of the council, and repealing commission directive 87/250/EEC, council directive 90/496/EEC, commission directive 1999/10/EC, directive 2000/13/EC of the European parliament and of the council, commission directives 2002/67/EC and 2008/5/EC and commission regulation (EC) No 608/2004. Official Journal of the European Union, L.304, 18–62.Google Scholar
  23. Feunekens, G. I. J., Gortemaker, I. A., Willems, A. A., Lion, R., & van den Kommer, M. (2008). Front-of-pack nutrition labelling: testing effectiveness of different nutrition labelling formats front-of-pack in four European countries. Appetite, 50, 57–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Fletcher, A. (2006). CIAA to launch new voluntary labelling scheme. Retrieved May 2015, from http://www.foodnavigator.com/Market-Trends/CIAA-to-launch-new-voluntary-labelling-scheme.
  25. Food and Drug Administration. (2013). Guidance for industry: A food labeling guide (8. Claims). Retrieved May 2015, from http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ucm064908.htm#structfunct.
  26. Gilsenan, M. B. (2011). Nutrition and health claims in the Euopean union: A regulatory overview. Trends in Foods Science and Technology, 22, 536–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Grunert, K., & Wills, J. (2007). A review of European research on consumer response to nutrition information on food labels. Journal of Public Health, 15, 385–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grunert, K. G., Scholderer, J., & Rogeaux, M. (2011). Determinants of consumer understanding of health claims. Appetite, 56, 269–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hieke, S., & Wilczynski, P. (2012). Colour me in—an empirical study on consumer responses to the traffic light signposting system in nutrition labeling. Public Health Nutrition, 15(5), 773–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hieke, S., Kuljanic, N., Wills, J. M., Pravst, I., Kaur, A., Raats, M. M., & Grunert, K. G. (2015). The role of health-related claims and health-related symbols in consumer behaviour: Design and conceptual framework of the CLYMBOL project and initial results. Nutrition Bulletin, 40(1), 66–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hooker, N. H., & Teratanavat, R. (2008). Dissecting qualified health claims: evidence from experimental studies. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48, 160–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kapsak, W. R., Schmidt, D., Childs, N. M., Meunier, J., & White, C. (2008). Consumer perceptions of graded, graphic and text label presentations for qualified health claims. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 48, 248–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kelly, B., Hughes, C., & Chapman, K. (2009). Consumer testing of the acceptability and effectiveness of front-of-pack labelling systems for the Australian grocery market. Health Health Promotion International, 24(2), 120–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lupton, J. R. (2009). Scientific substantiation of claims in the USA: focus on functional foods. European Journal of Nutrition, 48, S21–S31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lynam, A.-M., McKevitt, A., & Gibney, M. J. (2011). Irish consumers’use and perception of nutrition and health claims. Public Health Nutrition, 14(12), 2213–2219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Möser, A., Hoefkens, C., Van Camp, J., & Verbeke, W. (2010). Simplified nutrient labelling: consumers’perceptions in Germany and Belgium. Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, 5, 169–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nelson, P. (1970). Information and consumer behavior. Journal of Political Economy, 78, 311–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pothoulaki, M., & Chryssochoidis, G. (2009). Health claims. Consumers’ matters. Journal of Functional Foods, 1, 222–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Roe, B., Levy, A., & Derby, B. M. (1999). The impact of health claims on consumer search and product evaluation outcomes: Results from FDA experimental data. Journal of Public Policy Marketing, 18, 89–105.Google Scholar
  40. Sacks, G., Rayner, M., & Swinburn, B. (2009). Impact of front-of-pack ‘traffic-light’ nutrition labelling on consumer food purchases in the UK. Health Promotion International, 24(4), 344–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sanitarium Health & Wellbeing. (2011). Front-of-pack labelling: Which traffic lights? Retrieved May 2015, from http://www.sanitarium.com.au/~/media/sanitarium/about-us/traffic-light-report.ashx.
  42. Savoie, N., Barlow, K., Harvey, K. L., Binnie, M. A., & Pasut, L. (2013). Consumer perceptions of front-of-package labelling systems and healthiness of foods. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 104(5), 359–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Shimizu, T. (2002). Newly established regulation in Japan: foods with health claims. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11, S94–S96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Singer, L., Williams, P. G., Ridges, L., Murray, S., & McMahon, A. (2006). Consumer reactions to different health claim formats on food labels. Food Australia, 58, 92–97.Google Scholar
  45. Stigler, G. (1961). The economics of information. Journal of Political Economy, 69, 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Stockley, L. (2006). Review of ‘front of pack’ nutrition schemes. European Heart Network. Retrieved May 2015, from http://www.ehnheart.org/publications/publications.html.
  47. Stockley, L., Jordan, E., & Hunter, A. (2008). Citizens’ forums on food: Front of Pack (FoP) nutrition labelling. Prepared for: Food standards agency. Retrieved May 2015, from http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20131104005023/ http://www.food.gov.uk/multimedia/pdfs/citforumfop.pdf.
  48. Tee, E.-S. (2002). Nutrition labelling and claims: concerns and challenges from the Asia Pacific region. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11, S215–S223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. United States Congress. (1990). Nutrition labeling and education act (NLEA), Public Law 101–535.Google Scholar
  50. Verhagen, H., Vos, E., Francl, S., Heinonen, M., & van Loveren, H. (2010). Status of nutrition and health claims in Europe. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 501, 6–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wansink, B. (2003). How do front and back package labels influence beliefs about health claims? Journal of Consumer Affairs, 37, 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wartella, E., Lichtenstein, A., Yaktine, A., & Nathan, R. (2011). Front-of-package nutrition rating systems and symbols: Promoting healthier choices. Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  53. Williams, P. (2005). Consumer understanding and use of health claims for foods. Nutrition Reviews, 63, 256–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations