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In order to survive, the organism needs a series of substances that fulfill functions of an energetic regulatory nature, plastic or protective and balancing. They are subdivided into macro and micronutrients, on the basis of the quantity required by the organism. Glucides, protides and lipids belong to the first category, while vitamins and mineral salts to the second, with the addition of water, a fundamental element for every form of life. At the basis of proper nutrition is the choice of foodstuffs to which the optimal composition of these elements corresponds, in order to satisfy all of the organism’s needs and allow its proper functioning with time. Our organism elaborates numerous substances every day, even if requirements are differentiated per quantity. Furthermore, some substances must be introduced in diet since the organism is not able to synthesize them, and naturally, special attention will have to be given to these so as to avoid any form of shortage. In the present chapter, macro and micronutrients are analyzed briefly in order to pinpoint the optimal relationship of daily intake in the light of each single need. Finally, a brief examination of water and ethyl alcohol will be carried out.
KeywordsMacronutrients Glucids Protids Lipids Micronutrients Vitamins Mineral salts Water Ethylic alcohol Optimal diet
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