Diet and Nutritional Requirements

Part of the SpringerBriefs in Food, Health, and Nutrition book series (BRIEFSFOOD)


Nutrition is one of mankind’s fundamental needs. He has always been on the lookout for the most suitable foods from both a qualitative and quantitative point of view. With the coming into being of the food industry, the number of food products has progressively increased, and in developed countries, the pace of in-novation is continuously on the rise. On the one hand, such a wide possibility of choice has solved the problem of quantity, but on the other, it does not always prove to be useful in making an optimal choice of food in terms of quality. In the past few years there have been in-depth studies on nutrition in order to understand the effects foodstuffs have on the functioning of the human organism, therefore, the two dietary regimes being food and nutrition, are more and more interrelated. In fact, it is no longer enough to know the characteristics of a foodstuff, but it is necessary to follow the route it sets within our organism so as to be able to free those useful substances, and understand if and in what measure they are used for metabolic scopes. Guidelines on nutrition have progressively evolved with time offering some valid help, while taking into consideration a more and more rapid evolution of nutritional studies. If the freedom an individual has as regards food products is greater and greater, it is also true that each choice is reflected on the state of wellbeing with time.


Food choices Diet etymology Food science Nutrition science Food product Nutrition principles Nutrient Balanced diet 


  1. Aggett, P. J. (2010). Population reference intakes and micronutrient bioavailability: A European perspective. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(suppl), 1433S–1437S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bittner, J. V., & Kulesz, M. M. (2015). Health promotion messages: The role of social presence for food choice. Appetite, 87, 336–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion of USDA (2011). A brief history of USDA food guides. Resource document. Retrieved May 2015 from
  4. Cruwys, T., Bevelander, K. E., & Hermans, R. C. J. (2015). Social modeling of eating: A review of when and why social influence affects food intake and choice. Appetite, 86, 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. CSF (2012). Coming to terms with terminology. Food security, nutrition security, food security and nutrition, food and nutrition security. Resource document. Retrieved May 2015 from
  6. European Parliament and Council (2002). Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 on laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. Official Journal of the European Union, L.31, 1–24.Google Scholar
  7. FDA (2006). U.S. Food and Drug Administration Protecting and Promoting Your Health, Feder-al Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FD&CAct).Google Scholar
  8. Gianni, A. (Ed.). (1989). Dir. Dizionario italiano ragionato. Firenze, IT: D’Anna – Sintesi.Google Scholar
  9. Haven, J., Burns, A., Britten, P., & Davis, C. (2006). Developing the consumer interface for the MyPyramid food guidance system. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 38, S124–S135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Heaney, R. P. (2001). Factors influencing the measurement of bioavailability, taking calcium as a model. Journal of Nutrition, 131(suppl), 1344S–1348S.Google Scholar
  11. Jabs, J., & Devine, C. M. (2006). Time scarcity and food choices: an overview. Appetite, 47(2), 196–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Lucchin, L., & Caretto, A. (2012). La dieta mediterranea tra mito e realtà. Roma: Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore.Google Scholar
  13. Nestle, M. (2013). Food politics. How the food industry influences nutrition and health. Berkeley, LA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  14. Vannozzi, G., & Gioacchino, L. (2009). Lineamenti di dietoterapia e nutrizione clinica. Roma, IT: Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore.Google Scholar
  15. Welsh S., Davis C., & Shaw A. (1992). Development of the Food Guide Pyramid. Nutrition Today, November/December, 12-23.Google Scholar
  16. WHO & FAO (2013). Codex Alimentarius Commission, Procedural Manual. Resource document. Accessed May 2015.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations