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Introduction to the Cellular Transport of Organic Cations

  • Giuliano CiarimboliEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Organic cations (OCs) are substances of endogenous and exogenous origin to which belong important neurotransmitters such as histamine and serotonin and also drugs such as metformin. Because OCs are positively charged they need membrane transporters to permeate the plasma membrane. Membrane transporters which translocate OCs according to their electrochemical gradient belong to the Solute Carrier (SLC) families 22 (organic cation transporters (OCT) 1–3, and organic cation transporters novel (OCTN) 1–2) and 47 (multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) 1–2). This chapter collects the information on expression and function of these transporters present in the literature, comparing the characteristics of human and rodent transporters. These data show that OCTs play an important physiological role for neurotransmitter balance in the body. Moreover, they are also important uptake routes for intracellular drug delivery and, considering their high expression in excretory organs, together with MATEs are responsible for drug excretion. For this reason, OCTs and MATEs can be important determinants of drug efficacies and also toxicities. OCTNs are transporters involved in the cellular uptake of substances, which are important in cell metabolism and in signal transmission, such as ergothioneine, carnitine and acetylcholine. Even though the expression and function of orthologs of transporters for OCs is generally similar, still there are important differences that have to be considered for a proper interpretation of translational studies. Paralogs of transporters for organic cations often display similar characteristics, however they show also important differences e.g. with regard to interaction with substrates and to regulation. Other important functional aspects of transporters for organic cations, such as the molecular correlates of polyspecificity, regulation, interaction with drugs, genetic variations, role in the central nervous system, and distribution in the plants are discussed in the other sections of this book.

Keywords

Organic cations Transporters Neurotransmitters Drugs Plasma membrane 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG CI 107/4-1 to 3), of the “Innovative Medizinische Forschung” (CI 120437) and of the “Interdisziplinäres Zentrum für Klinische Forschung (IZKF)” (CIA02/013/13), both at the Medical Faculty of the University of Münster for the studies of G.C. and E.S. mentioned in their respective chapters is also acknowledged.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Experimental Nephrology, Medical Clinic DUniversity of MünsterMünsterGermany

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