Grading and Reporting Student Learning

  • E. Nola AitkenEmail author
Part of the The Enabling Power of Assessment book series (EPAS, volume 2)


The essence of this chapter is classroom grading practice and reporting student learning. Issues with current grading practice and reporting are discussed. This discussion is followed with implications of changing from traditional grading and reporting practices to those that reflect fair assessment practice and accurate communication of student results. The chapter concludes with suggestions and recommendations for implementing outcomes-based reporting of student learning.


Assessment Evaluation Summative evaluation Formative assessment Grading practice History of grading Punitive grading Second chances Bullying and grade inflation Rewards and awards Grading options Assessment for learning Assessment of learning Reporting student learning Grading issues Fair assessment practice Outcomes-based grading and reporting Standards-based grading reporting Classroom-based assessment Leadership implications Teacher bias 


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© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada

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