Advertisement

Grading and Reporting Student Learning

  • E. Nola AitkenEmail author
Part of the The Enabling Power of Assessment book series (EPAS, volume 2)

Abstract

The essence of this chapter is classroom grading practice and reporting student learning. Issues with current grading practice and reporting are discussed. This discussion is followed with implications of changing from traditional grading and reporting practices to those that reflect fair assessment practice and accurate communication of student results. The chapter concludes with suggestions and recommendations for implementing outcomes-based reporting of student learning.

Keywords

Assessment Evaluation Summative evaluation Formative assessment Grading practice History of grading Punitive grading Second chances Bullying and grade inflation Rewards and awards Grading options Assessment for learning Assessment of learning Reporting student learning Grading issues Fair assessment practice Outcomes-based grading and reporting Standards-based grading reporting Classroom-based assessment Leadership implications Teacher bias 

References

  1. Airasian, P. W. (1991). Classroom assessment. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  2. Aitken, E. N. (1994). A hermeneutic phenomenological investigation of students’ experience of test taking. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada.Google Scholar
  3. Aitken, E. N. (2007, November). The seven deadly sins of assessment—and how to avoid them! (Sponsored by the Centre for the Advancement of Excellence in Teaching and Learning (CAETL) Teaching and Learning Seminar Series). Lethbridge, AB, Canada: University of Lethbridge.Google Scholar
  4. Aitken, E. N. (2012). Student voice in fair assessment practice. In C. F. Webber & J. L. Lupart (Eds.), Leading student assessment (pp. 175–200). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  5. Alberta Education. (2006). Effective student assessment and evaluation in the classroom: Knowledge, skills, and attributes. Edmonton, AB, Canada: Alberta Education. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED498247.pdf
  6. Alberta Education. (2013). Cycle 3 and 4 AISI project summaries. Retrieved from http://education.alberta.ca/teachers/aisi/leaders/synopses.aspx
  7. Allen, J. (2005). Grades as valid measures of academic achievement of classroom learning. Clearing House, 78(5), 218–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Apple, M. (1979). Ideology and curriculum. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baird, J. (2013). Judging students’ performances. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 20(3), 247–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Barboza, T. (2009, December 23). Huntington Beach high schools opt to use Latin honors for top students. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/2009/dec/23/local/la-me-valedictorian23-2009dec23
  11. Battle River School Division No. 31. (2012, September). Student assessment. Administrative Procedures Manual. Battle River School Division No. 31, Alberta, Canada. Retrieved from http://www.brsd.ab.ca/Resources/AdministrativeProcedures/Documents/360%20Student%20Assessment.pdf
  12. Berger, R. (1991). Building a school culture of high standards: A teacher’s perspective. In V. Perrone (Ed.), Expanding student assessment (pp. 32–39). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  13. Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2003). Assessment for learning. New York: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Black, P., Harrison, C., Lee, C., Marshall, B., & Wiliam, D. (2004). Working inside the black box: Assessment for learning in the classroom. Phi DeltaKappan, 86, 8–21.Google Scholar
  15. Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Inside the black box: Raising standards through classroom assessment. Phi Delta Kappan, 80, 139–148.Google Scholar
  16. Brandt, R. (1995). Punished by rewards?: A conversation with Alfie Kohn. Educational Leadership, 53(1), n.p. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept95/vol53/num01/Punished-by-Rewards¢-A-Conversation-with-Alfie-Kohn.aspx
  17. Brookhart, S. M. (1999). Teaching about communicating assessment results and grading. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 18(1), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brookhart, S. M. (2004). Grading. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson-Merrill-Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  19. Brookhart, S. M. (2013). The use of teacher judgement for summative assessment in the USA. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy, & Practice, 20(1), 69–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Burke, K. (2005). How to assess authentic learning (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  21. Burke, K. (2009). How to assess authentic learning (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  22. Centre for Research in Applied Measurement and Evaluation. (1993). Principles for fair student assessment practices for education in Canada. Retrieved from http://www2.education.ualberta.ca/educ/psych/crame/files/eng_prin.pdf
  23. Chappuis, J., Stiggins, R., Chappuis, S., & Arter, J. (2011). Classroom assessment for student learning: Doing it right – using it well (2nd ed.). Portland, OR: Assessment Training Institute.Google Scholar
  24. Chen, L. (2012, September 12). Tragedies reveal that many schools fail at suicide prevention. Global Times. Retrieved from http://www.globaltimes.cn/content/732622.shtml
  25. Cota Nupah Makah, L. (n.d.). The American Indian code of ethics. Manataka™American Indian Council. Retrieved from http://www.manataka.org/page1087.html
  26. Davies, A. (2000). Making classroom assessment work. Merville, BC, Canada: Connections.Google Scholar
  27. Davies, A. (2007). Making classroom assessment work (2nd ed.). Courtenay, BC, Canada: Connections.Google Scholar
  28. Davies, A., Cameron, C., Politano, C., & Gregory, K. (1992). Together is better: Collaborative assessment, evaluation, and reporting. Winnipeg, MB, Canada: Peguis.Google Scholar
  29. Draft policy ends ‘no-zero’ grading in Edmonton public schools. (2012, December 8). CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/edmonton/story/2012/12/07/edmonton-grading-policy-zeros-public-schools.html
  30. DuFour, R., & Marzano, R. J. (2009). High–leverage strategies for principal leadership. Educational Leadership, 66(5), 62–68 Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  31. Earl, L. M. (2003). Assessment as learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  32. Earl, L. M., & Katz, S. (2006). Rethinking classroom assessment with purpose in mind: Assessment for learning, assessment as learning, assessment of learning. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.mb.ca/k12/assess/wncp/rethinking_assess_mb.pdf
  33. Ebel, R. L. (1974). Shall we get rid of grades? Measurement in Education, 5(4), 1–2.Google Scholar
  34. Ebel, R. L. (1979). Essentials of educational measurement. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  35. Edmonton Public Schools. (2013). Edmonton public schools board policies and regulations. Retrieved from http://www.epsb.ca/policy/hk.bp.shtml
  36. Elk Island Public Schools. (2007). Making the most of your child’s outcomes-based report card. Retrieved from http://www.ministikelementary.ca/files/21/Outcomes%20Based%20Report%20Card.pdf
  37. Elmore, R. F. (2005). Accountable leadership. The Educational Forum, 69, 134–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Freeman, M. (2010, September 20). Letter grades vanishing from some Palm Beach County report cards. District pilots new “standards-based” report card at 13 elementary schools. The Palm Beach Post News. Retrieved from http://www.palmbeachpost.com/news/schools/letter-grades-vanishing-from-some-palm-beach-county-926705.html
  39. Friedman, E. (2008, December 5). Are students coddled? Schools get rid of ‘F’s. ABC News. Retrieved from http://abcnews.go.com/print?id=6395403
  40. Gerson, J. (2012, September 19). Teacher who was fired for giving students zeros finds new home at ‘old-fashioned’ Edmonton private school. National Post. Retrieved from http://news.nationalpost.com/2012/09/19/lynden-dorval-captain-zero/
  41. Gill, T., & Bramley, T. (2013). How accurate are examiners’ holistic judgements of script quality? Assessment in Education: Principles: Policy & Practice, 20(3), 308–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Greenberger, E., Lessard, J., Chen, C., & Farruggia, S. P. (2008). Self-entitled college students: Contributions of personality, parenting, and motivational factors. Irivne: University of California.Google Scholar
  43. Grennon Brooks, J., & Brooks, M. (1993). In search of understanding: The case for constructivist classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  44. Gullickson, A. R. (1986). Teacher education and teacher-perceived needs in educational measurement and evaluation. Journal of Educational Measurement, 23(8), 347–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Guskey, T., Swan, G., & Jung, L. (2010). Developing a statewide, standards-based student report card: A review of the Kentucky initiative. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb = true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0 = ED509404&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0 = no&accno = ED509404
  46. Guskey, T., Swan, G., & Jung, L. (2011). Grades that mean something: Kentucky develops standards-based report cards. Kappan, 93(2), 52–57. Retrieved from http://education.ky.gov/school/Documents/Grades%20that%20Mean%20Something.pdf
  47. Guskey, T. R. (1996). Reporting on student learning: Lessons from the past – Prescriptions for the future. In T. R. Guskey (Ed.), Communicating student learning: 1996 yearbook of the association for supervision and curriculum development (pp. 13–24). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  48. Guskey, T. R. (2004a). 0 alternatives. Principal Leadership, 5(2), 49–53.Google Scholar
  49. Guskey, T. R. (2004b). Are zeros your ultimate weapon? Education Digest, 70(3), 31–35.Google Scholar
  50. Guskey, T. R. (2007). Leadership in the age of accountability. Educational Horizons, 86(1), 29–34.Google Scholar
  51. Guskey, T. R. (2011). Five obstacles to grading reform. Educational Leadership, 69(3), 16–21. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/nov11/vol69/num03/Five-Obstacles-to-Grading-Reform.aspx
  52. Guskey, T. R. (n.d.). Grading systems–school. Retrieved from http://education.stateuniversity.com/pages/2017/Grading-Systems.html
  53. Guskey, T. R., & Bailey, J. M. (2001). Developing grading and reporting systems for student learning. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  54. Guskey, T. R., & Jung, L. (2006). The challenges of standards-based grading. Leadership Compass, 4(2), 1–4. Retrieved from http://www.naesp.org/resources/2/Leadership_Compass/2006/LC2006v4n2a3.pdf
  55. Haberman, M. (1995). Star teachers of children in poverty. Bloomington, IN: Kappa Delta Pi.Google Scholar
  56. Hargreaves, A., Earl, L., Moore, S., & Manning, S. (2001). Learning to change: Teaching beyond subjects and standards. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  57. Harsch, C., & Martin, G. (2013). Comparing holistic and analytic scoring methods: Issues of validity and reliability. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 20(3), 281–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hogge, J. H. (2009). Should university grades be based solely on achievement? Teachers College Record. Retrieved from http://www.tcrecord.org/Content.asp?ContentID=15602
  59. J&K to introduce grading system in school education. (2011, January 12). OneIndia News. Retrieved from http://news.oneindia.in/2011/01/12/jkto-introduce-grading-system-in-schooleducation-aid0126.html
  60. Jagodzinski, J. (1992). Curriculum as felt through six layers of an aesthetically embodied skin. In W. F. Pinar & W. M. Reynolds (Eds.), Understanding curriculum as phenomenological and deconstructed text (pp. 159–183). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  61. Janney, K., Morris, L., & Stubbs, N. (2005). A culture of greatness. Leadership, 34(5), 8–38.Google Scholar
  62. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (2002). Meaningful assessment: A manageable and cooperative process. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  63. King, M., & Ranallo, J. (1993). Teaching and assessment strategies for the transition age. Vancouver, BC, Canada: EduServ.Google Scholar
  64. Kirschenbaum, H., Napier, R., & Simon, S. (1971). Wad-Ja-Get? The grading game in American education. New York: Hart.Google Scholar
  65. Knight, P., Aitken, E. N., & Rogerson, R. J. (2000). Forever better: Continuous quality improvement in higher education. Stillwater, OK: New Forums Press.Google Scholar
  66. Kohn, A. (1993). Punished by rewards. New York: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  67. Kohn, A. (1994). Grading: The issue is not how but why. Educational Leadership, 52(2), 38–41. Retrieved from http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/grading.htm
  68. Kohn, A. (1999). From degrading to de-grading. High School Magazine. Retrieved from http://www.alfiekohn.org/teaching/fdtd-g.htm
  69. Kwintessential. (2012). Malaysia–Language, culture, customs and etiquette. Retrieved from http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/malaysia.html
  70. Leithwood, K., Seashore Louis, K., Anderson, S., & Wahlstrom, K. (2004).How leadership influences student learning. Retrieved from http://www.wallacefoundation.org/knowledge-center/school-leadership/key-research/Pages/How-Leadership-Influences-Student-Learning.aspx
  71. Lingard, B., Mills, M., & Hayes, D. (2006). Enabling and aligning assessment for learning: Some research and policy lessons from Queensland. International Studies in Sociology of Education, 16(2), 83–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Loveland, T. R. (2005). Writing standards-based rubrics for technology education classrooms. Technology Teacher, 65(2), 19–30.Google Scholar
  73. Majesky, D. (1993). Grading should go. Educational Leadership, 50(7), 88, 90.Google Scholar
  74. Marzano, R. J. (2000). Transforming classroom grading. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  75. Marzano, R. J. (2006). Classroom assessment and grading that work. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  76. Mathews, J. (2005, June 14). Where some give credit, others say it’s not due. Across the nation, teachers’ views vary on whether struggling students deserve points simply for trying. Washington Post, (A10). Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/13/AR2005061301471_2.html
  77. McMillan, J. H., Hellsten, L. M., & Klinger, D. A. (2011). Classroom assessment. Toronto, ON, Canada: Pearson.Google Scholar
  78. McTighe, J., & O’Connor, K. (2005). Seven practices for effective learning. Educational Leadership, 63(3), 10–17.Google Scholar
  79. Miller, M. D., Linn, R. L., & Gronlund, N. E. (2009). Measurement and assessment in teaching (10th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  80. Native American Culture. (n.d.). There are many aspects that make up the rich Native American culture that we see today. Retrieved from http://kb202.k12.sd.us/10/Native_American.htm
  81. Nettles, S., & Herrington, C. (2007). Revisiting the importance of the direct effect of school leadership on students’ achievements: The implications for school improvement policy. Peabody Journal of Education, 82, 724–736.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. New South Wales Department of Education and Communities. (2013). Examinations. Government schools of New South Wales from 1848. Retrieved from http://www.governmentschools.det.nsw.edu.au/examinations.shtm
  83. Nitko, A. J., & Brookhart, S. M. (2007). Educational assessment of students (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  84. Nitko, A. J., & Brookhart, S. M. (2011). Educational assessment of students (6th ed.). Upper Saddler River, NJ: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  85. O’Connor, K. (2002). How to grade for learning: Linking grades to standards (2nd ed.). Glenview, IL: Skylight.Google Scholar
  86. O’Connor, K. (2007). A repair kit for grading: 15 fixes for broken grades. Portland, OR: Educational Testing Service.Google Scholar
  87. O’Connor, K. (2009). How to grade for learning K-12 (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  88. O’Connor, K. (2013). The school leader’s guide to grading. Bloomington, IN: Solution Tree Press.Google Scholar
  89. O’Shea, M. R. (2005). From standards to success: A guide for school leaders. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  90. Olson, M. (2010). Outcome-based progress reporting: Considerations for implementation. Unpublished paper, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.Google Scholar
  91. Ontario Ministry of Education. (2010). Growing success. Assessment, evaluation, and reporting in Ontario schools. Retrieved from http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/policyfunding/growSuccess.pdf
  92. Ontario schools get tough on late assignments. (2010, August 25). CBC News, (n.p.). Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/ont-schools-will-get-tougher-on-late-assignments-1.953517
  93. Oosterhof, A. (2009). Developing and using classroom assessments (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  94. Palmer, P. (1998). The courage to teach. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  95. Perrone, V. (Ed.). (1991). Expanding student assessment. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Google Scholar
  96. Pike, G. (1991). Reflections of a failing grade. In M. van Manen (Ed.), Texts of pedagogy (pp. 201–232). University of Alberta, AB, Canada: Human Science in Education Project.Google Scholar
  97. Policies differ across the region. (2005, June 14). Washington Post, (n.p.). Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/06/13/AR2005061301470.html
  98. Pytel, B. (2008, March 9). Teachers harassed by parents: Parents can be bullies too. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.suite101.com/content/teachers-harassed-by-parents-a47159
  99. Reeves, D. (2004). The case against the zero. Phi Delta Kappan, 86(4), 324–325.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Reynolds, C. R., Livingstone, R. B., & Wilson, V. (2009). Measurement and assessment in education (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.Google Scholar
  101. Ronne, D. (2010). Parents’ understanding of assessment and reporting: What role can leadership play? Unpublished paper, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, AB, Canada.Google Scholar
  102. Roosevelt, M. (2009, February 17). Student expectations seen as causing grade disputes. New York Times, p. L2.Google Scholar
  103. Runeson, B. S. (1998). Child psychiatric symptoms in consecutive suicides among young people. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 10(2), 69–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schafer, W. D., & Lissitz, R. W. (1987). Measurement training for school personnel: Recommendations and reality. Journal of Teacher Education, 38(3), 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Slavin, R. (1994). Educational psychology: Theory and practice (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  106. Smaill, E. (2013). Moderating New Zealand’s National Standards: Teacher learning and assessment outcomes. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 20(3), 250–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Smith, F. (1986). Insult to intelligence. New York: Arbor House.Google Scholar
  108. Sonner, B. S. (2000). A is for “Adjunct”: Examining grade inflation in higher education. The Journal of Education for Business, 76(1), 5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Staples, D. (2012, June 4). Public uprising against “No Zeros” policy of Edmonton Public School Board. Edmonton Journal. Retrieved from http://blogs.edmontonjournal.com/2012/06/04/public-uprising-against-no-zeros-policy-of-edmonton-public-school-board/
  110. Stiggins, R. (1993). Teacher training in assessment: Overcoming the neglect. In S. L. Wise (Ed.), Teacher training in assessment and measurement skills (pp. 27–40). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.Google Scholar
  111. Stiggins, R. (2001). The principal’s leadership role in assessment. NASSP Bulletin, 85, 13–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Stiggins, R. (2002). Assessment crisis: The absence of assessment for learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83, 758–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Stiggins, R. (2007). Five assessment myths and their consequences. Education Week, 27(8), 28–29.Google Scholar
  114. Stiggins, R. (2008). Student-involved assessment for learning (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill, Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  115. Stiggins, R., & Duke, D. (2008). Effective instructional leadership requires assessment leadership. Phi Delta Kappan, 90, 285–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Webber, C. F., Aitken, E. N., Lupart, J., & Scott, S. (2009). Alberta student assessment study final report. Edmonton, AB, Canada: Alberta Education\Author. Retrieved from http://education.alberta.ca/media/1165612/albertaassessmentstudyfinalreport.pdf
  117. Wiggins, G. P. (1993). Assessing student performance: Exploring the purpose and limits of testing. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  118. Wiggins, G. P. (1994). Toward better report cards. Educational Leadership, 52(2), 28.Google Scholar
  119. Willis, S. (1993). Are letter grades obsolete? ASCD Update, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 35(7), 1, 4, & 8.Google Scholar
  120. Woods, K., & Griffin, P. (2013). Judgement-based performance measures of literacy for students with additional needs: Seeing students through the eyes of experienced special education teachers. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 20(3), 325–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Wormeli, R. (2006a). Accountability: Teaching through assessment and feedback, not grading. American Secondary Education, 34(3), 14–27.Google Scholar
  122. Wormeli, R. (2006b). Fair isn’t always equal. Assessing and grading in the differentiated classroom. Portland, ME: Stenhouse.Google Scholar
  123. Worsfold, A. (n.d.). A history of school examinations. Wilderspin National School. Retrieved from http://www.change.freeuk.com/learning/howteach/exams.html
  124. Zwaagstra, M. (2013, April 25). Percentages belong on report cards. Common Sense Education. [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://michaelzwaagstra.com/?p = 329

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada

Personalised recommendations