Clinical Management

  • Marcus L. QuekEmail author
  • Trinity J. Bivalacqua
  • Ashish M. Kamat
  • Mark P. Schoenberg


Urine cytology is utilized in various clinical scenarios, including the evaluation of hematuria or voiding symptoms, the initial workup for a suspected urothelial malignancy, and for ongoing surveillance following treatment for urothelial cancer. The primary goal of the clinician evaluating these patients is to ensure that a potentially lethal urothelial malignancy is not missed. When combined with upper tract radiographic imaging and direct cystoscopic evaluation, urine cytology provides a powerful means to accomplish this goal.


Transurethral resection of bladder tumor Cystoscopy Radical cystectomy Intravesical chemotherapy Intravesical immunotherapy Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) Mitomycin C CT urography Urethral recurrence Upper tract urothelial carcinoma 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marcus L. Quek
    • 1
    Email author
  • Trinity J. Bivalacqua
    • 2
  • Ashish M. Kamat
    • 3
  • Mark P. Schoenberg
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of UrologyLoyola University Health Systems, Loyola UniversityChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyThe Johns Hopkins Hospital, The Johns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of UrologyThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA
  4. 4.Department of UrologyMontefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva UniversityBronxUSA

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