Conservation and Efficiency

  • Roger James Kuhns
  • George H. Shaw


Conservation of natural resources, transportation, and land use and building decisions and operations in high-density urban centers are keys in conservation of energy. Energy conservation is achieved legislatively by, for example, requiring greater efficiency in appliances and machines (e.g., Energy Star), in vehicle fuel efficiency (e.g., CAFE Standards), and in building insulation and operating systems efficiencies gained (e.g., FEMP guidelines, ASHRAE standards, etc.). In built spaces small- to moderate-scale efficiencies such as installation of LED lighting or passive heating and cooling of spaces through building design and many other building and landscaping methods itemized in the US Green Building Council LEED certification system can lower or at least slow the growth of our energy demands.


Conservation Efficiency LEED LED Heating Cooling Lighting Sustainable Public transportation Electric vehicle Petroleum Star HVAC 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger James Kuhns
    • 1
  • George H. Shaw
    • 2
  1. 1.SustainAudit, LLCMysticUSA
  2. 2.Geology DepartmentUnion CollegeSchenectadyUSA

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