The Role of Glass-ionomers in Paediatric Dentistry

  • David John MantonEmail author
  • Katie Bach


Children provide many challenges in clinical dentistry and behaviour management. All dental care provided for a child should consider the characteristics of that individual such as age, behavioural capabilities and ‘total treatment load’. Especially in the child at high risk of dental caries, the use of low-viscosity glass-ionomer cements (GICs) in timely protection of ‘at-risk’ surfaces of molar teeth is of great benefit. The selection of an appropriate restorative material can be influenced by the caries risk, age to exfoliation of the primary tooth, size and position of the carious lesion, pulpal status and other factors such as appearance. GICs are the primary material of choice for the cementation of preformed metal crowns and are also useful in sealing over pulpotomy agents to maintain seal and pulpal health. The use of GIC in orthodontics, especially in those individuals with increased caries risk, is advisable. Whether used as a band or bracket cement, GIC decreases the risk and extent of white spot lesion formation around orthodontic fixtures, and if applied accordingly, bond strengths are high enough to undertake orthodontic care efficiently.


Paediatric dentistry Restorative GIC Surface protection Fissure sealants Preformed crowns Treatment planning 


  1. Atieh M. Stainless steel crown versus modified open-sandwich restorations for primary molars: a 2-year randomized clinical trial. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008;18:325–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beauchamp J, Caufield PW, Crall JJ, Donly K, Feigal R, Gooch B, Ismail A, Kohn W, Siegal M, Simonsen R, Frantsve-Hawley J. Evidence-based clinical recommendations for the use of pit-and-fissure sealants – a report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008;139:257–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Benson P, Shah A, Millett D, Dyer F, Parkin N, Vine R. Fluorides, orthodontics and demineralization: a systematic review. J Orthod. 2005;32:102–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Benson PE, Parkin N, Dyer F, Millett DT, Furness S, Germain P. Fluorides for the prevention of early tooth decay (demineralised white lesions) during fixed brace treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(12):CD003809.Google Scholar
  5. Borges BCD, De Souza Borges J, Braz R, Montes MAJR, De Assunção Pinheiro IV. Arrest of non-cavitated dentinal occlusal caries by sealing pits and fissures: a 36-month, randomised controlled clinical trial. Int Dent J. 2012;62:251–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Cagetti M, Carta G, Cocco F, Sale S, Congiu G, Mura A, Strohmenger L, Lingström P, Campus G, Bossù M. Effect of fluoridated sealants on adjacent tooth surfaces a 30-mo randomized clinical trial. J Dent Res. 2014;93:59s–65.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheng HY, Chen CH, Li CL, Tsai HH, Chou TH, Wang WN. Bond strength of orthodontic light-cured resin-modified glass ionomer cement. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33:180–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Czochrowska E, Ogaard B, Duschner H, Ruben J, Arends J. Cariostatic effect of a light-cured, resin-reinforced glass-ionomer for bonding orthodontic brackets in vivo. J Orofac Orthop. 1998;59:265–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. De Bruyne MAA, De Moor RJG. The use of glass ionomer cements in both conventional and surgical endodontics. Int Endod J. 2004;37:91–104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Duque C, De Cássia Negrini T, Sacono NT, Spolidorio DMP, De Souza Costa CA, Hebling J. Clinical and microbiological performance of resin-modified glass-ionomer liners after incomplete dentine caries removal. Clin Oral Investig. 2009;13:465–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Farmer SN, Ludlow SW, Donaldson ME, Tantbirojn D, Versluis A. Microleakage of composite and two types of glass ionomer restorations with saliva contamination at different steps. Pediatr Dent. 2014;36:14–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fleisch AF, Sheffield PE, Chinn C, Edelstein BL, Landrigan PJ. Bisphenol A and related compounds in dental materials. Pediatrics. 2010;126:760–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Frencken JE, Songpaisan Y, Phantumvanit P, Pilot T. An atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) technique: evaluation after one year. Int Dent J. 1994;44:460–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Frencken J, Van’t Hof M, Taifour D, Al‐Zaher I. Effectiveness of art and traditional amalgam approach in restoring single‐surface cavities in posterior teeth of permanent dentitions in school children after 6.3 years. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007;35:207–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hashem D, Mannocci F, Patel S, Manoharan A, Brown JE, Watson TF, Banerjee A. Clinical and radiographic assessment of the efficacy of calcium silicate indirect pulp capping: a randomized controlled clinical trial. J Dent Res. 2015;94:562–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hutcheson C, Seale NS, Mcwhorter A, Kerins C, Wright J. Multi-surface composite vs stainless steel crown restorations after mineral trioxide aggregate pulpotomy: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Dent. 2012;34:460–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Jedeon K, De La Dure-Molla M, Brookes SJ, Loiodice S, Marciano C, Kirkham J, Canivenc-Lavier M-C, Boudalia S, Berges R, Harada H, Berdal A, Babajko S. Enamel defects reflect perinatal exposure to bisphenol A. Am J Pathol. 2013;183:108–18.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Kindelan SA, Day P, Nichol R, Willmott N, Fayle SA. UK National Clinical Guidelines in Paediatric Dentistry: stainless steel preformed crowns for primary molars. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2008;18:20–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Kulczyk KE, Sidhu SK, Mccabe JF. Salivary contamination and bond strength of glass-ionomers to dentin. Oper Dent. 2005;30:676–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Memarpour M, Mesbahi M, Rezvani G, Rahimi M. Microleakage of adhesive and nonadhesive luting cements for stainless steel crowns. Pediatr Dent. 2011;33:501–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Mickenautsch S, Yengopal V. Caries-preventive effect of glass ionomer and resin-based fissure sealants on permanent teeth: an update of systematic review evidence. BMC Res Notes. 2011;4:22.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mickenautsch S, Mount G, Yengopal V. Therapeutic effect of glass‐ionomers: an overview of evidence. Aust Dent J. 2011;56:10–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Paschos E, Galosi T, Huth K, Rudzki I, Wichelhaus A, Kunzelmann K-H. Do bonding agents protect the bracket-periphery?—Evaluation by consecutive μCT scans and fluorescence measurements. Clin Oral Investig. 2015;19:159–68.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Purushothaman D, Kailasam V, Chitharanjan AB. Bisphenol a release from orthodontic adhesives and its correlation with the degree of conversion. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2015;147:29–36.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Ricketts D, Lamont T, Innes NP, Kidd E, Clarkson JE. Operative caries management in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(3):CD003808.Google Scholar
  26. Shimazu K, Ogata K, Karibe H. Evaluation of the caries-preventive effect of three orthodontic band cements in terms of fluoride release, retentiveness, and microleakage. Dent Mater J. 2013;32:376–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Simonsen RJ. Glass ionomer as fissure sealant—a critical review. J Public Health Dent. 1996;56:146–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Simonsen RJ, Neal RC. A review of the clinical application and performance of pit and fissure sealants. Aust Dent J. 2011;56:45–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Slutzky H, Feuerstern O, Namuz K, Shpack N, Lewinstein I, Matalon S. The effects of in vitro fluoride mouth rinse on the antibacterial properties of orthodontic cements. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2014;17:150–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Sudjalim TR, Woods MG, Manton DJ. Prevention of white spot lesions in orthodontic practice: a contemporary review. Aust Dent J. 2006;51:284–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Taifour D, Frencken JE, Beiruti N, Truin GJ. Effects of glass ionomer sealants in newly erupted first molars after 5 years: a pilot study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003;31:314–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Trairatvorakul C, Itsaraviriyakul S, Wiboonchan W. Effect of glass-ionomer cement on the progression of proximal caries. J Dent Res. 2011;90:99–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ulusu T, Odabaş ME, Tüzüner T, Baygin Ö, Sillelioğlu H, Deveci C, Gökdoğan FG, Altuntaş A. The success rates of a glass ionomer cement and a resin-based fissure sealant placed by fifth-year undergraduate dental students. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2012;13:94–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Watson TF, Atmeh AR, Sajini S, Cook RJ, Festy F. Present and future of glass-ionomers and calcium-silicate cements as bioactive materials in dentistry: biophotonics-based interfacial analyses in health and disease. Dent Mater. 2014;30:50–61.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Wiltshire WA. Shear bond strengths of a glass-ionomer for direct bonding in orthodontics. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1994;106:127–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Yap J, Walsh LJ, Naser-Ud Din S, Ngo H, Manton DJ. Evaluation of a novel approach in the prevention of white spot lesions around orthodontic brackets. Aust Dent J. 2014;59:70–80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Yilmaz Y, Dalmis A, Gurbuz T, Simsek S. Retentive force and microleakage of stainless steel crowns cemented with three different luting agents. Dent Mater J. 2004;23:577–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Yilmaz Y, Belduz Kara N, Yilmaz A, Sahin H. Wear and repair of stainless steel crowns. Eur J Paediatr Dent. 2011;12:25–30.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Growth and DevelopmentUniversity of Melbourne, Melbourne Dental SchoolCarltonAustralia
  2. 2.Oral Health UnitAuckland District Health BoardAucklandNew Zealand

Personalised recommendations