Advertisement

Nontoxic Uninodular Goiter

  • Massimiliano Andrioli
  • Roberto ValcaviEmail author
Chapter
  • 1.3k Downloads

Abstract

This chapter describes imaging findings in patients with nontoxic uninodular goiter. Thyroid ultrasonography is the first-line diagnostic procedure for characterizing uninodular goiter providing immediate information about the degree of suspicion of a thyroid lesion. Position, extracapsular relationships, internal content, shape, echogenicity, echotexture, presence of calcifications, margins, vascularity, hardness, and size of a thyroid lesion are the ultrasonographic features commonly used for risk stratification. Scintigraphic techniques may have a supporting role in this setting.

Keywords

Thyroid nodule Goiter Thyroid cancer Ultrasonography Scintigraphy 

References

  1. 1.
    Mazzaferri EL (1993) Management of a solitary thyroid nodule. N Engl J Med 328:553–559CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gharib H (1994) Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodules: advantages, limitations and effect. Mayo Clin Proc 69:44–49CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gharib H, Papini E, Paschke R et al (2010) AACE/AME/ETA task force on thyroid nodules. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules. Endocr Pract 16(suppl 1):1–43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cappelli C, Castellano M, Pirola I et al (2006) Thyroid nodule shape suggests malignancy. Eur J Endocrinol 155:27–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim EK, Park CS, Chung WY et al (2002) New sonographic criteria for recommending fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable solid nodules of the thyroid. AJR Am J Roentgenol 178:687–691CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Moon WJ, Jung SL, Lee JH et al (2008) Thyroid Study Group, Korean Society of Neuro-and Head and Neck Radiology Benign and malignant thyroid nodules: US differentiation-multicenter retrospective study. Radiology 247:762–770CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andrioli M, Carzaniga C, Persani L (2013) Standardized ultrasound report for thyroid nodules: the Endocrinologist’s viewpoint. Eur Thyroid J 2:37–48PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cerbone G, Spiezia S, Colao A et al (1999) Power Doppler improves the diagnostic accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography in cold thyroid nodules: follow-up results. Horm Res 52:19–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hegedüs L (2004) Clinical practice. The thyroid nodule. N Engl J Med 351:1764–1771CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoang JK, Lee WK, Lee M et al (2007) US features of thyroid malignancy: pearls and pitfalls. Radiographics 27:847–860CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andrioli M, Persani L (2014) Elastographic techniques of thyroid gland: current status. Endocrine 46:455–461CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Unlütürk U, Erdogan MF, Demir O et al (2012) Ultrasound-elastography is not superior to gray-scale ultrasound in predicting malignancy in thyroid nodules. Thyroid 22:1031–1038CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Trimboli P, Treglia G, Sadeghi R et al (2014) Reliability of real-time elastography to diagnose thyroid nodules previously read at FNAC as indeterminate: a meta-analysis. Endocrine. doi: 10.1007/s12020-014-0510-9 Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Andrioli M (2014) Nodulo tiroideo. In: Andrioli M (ed) Ecografia della tiroide – un approccio specialistico. Griffin Editore, ComoGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Papini E, Guglielmi R, Bianchini A et al (2002) Risk of malignancy in nonpalpable thyroid nodules: predictive value of ultrasound and color-Doppler features. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87:1941–1946CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Treglia G, Caldarella C, Saggiorato E et al (2013) Diagnostic performance of (99m)Tc-MIBI scan in predicting the malignancy of thyroid nodules: a meta-analysis. Endocrine 44:70–78CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EndocrinologiaOggiRomeItaly
  2. 2.EndocrinologiaCentro PalmerReggio EmiliaItaly

Personalised recommendations