Percutaneous Minimally Invasive Techniques

  • Massimiliano Andrioli
  • Roberto ValcaviEmail author


In the past two decades, percutaneous ultrasound-guided minimally invasive techniques have been proposed in order to produce a volume reduction of the benign thyroid nodules. This chapter describes the main minimally invasive procedures and their indications. Currently available ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures can induce a rapid, clinically significant long-term size reduction of benign thyroid nodules with minimal risks. Ethanol injection should preferentially be considered as the first-line treatment for relapsing thyroid cysts. The thermo-ablative techniques, instead, may be used as an alternative to surgery in patients with solid benign thyroid nodules causing aesthetic problems or compressive symptoms, achieving a significant volume reduction. Less appropriate indications are large nodular goiters, multinodular thyroid disease, or deeply positioned lesions.


Thyroid nodule Percutaneous techniques Ethanol injection Laser ablation Radiofrequency ablation High-intensity focused ultrasound Microwave 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.EndocrinologiaOggiRomeItaly
  2. 2.EndocrinologiaCentro PalmerReggio EmiliaItaly

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