Advertisement

Abstract

In recent years, mindfulness-based interventions have become increasingly popular as complementary treatment strategies for a number of medical and psychiatric conditions including depressive spectrum disorders. Mindfulness is a practice in which the objective is to maintain ones attention in the present moment rather than allowing automatic thinking patterns and emotional responses to drive awareness. The foundation of a mindfulness practice is meditation. Meditation is the process by which practitioners develop the skill to keep attention focused. This skill is then utilized to practice mindful awareness both in formal meditation and during tasks of daily life.

The main psychological mechanism of mindfulness is known as reperceiving. Reperceiving is a perspective shift such that one sees thoughts and emotions as passing and frequently insignificant phenomena rather than as representing fact. This shift comes about as a result of staying focused in the present moment and observing thoughts and emotions arise and pass. Practitioners thereby gain distance from their own mental processes such that both thoughts and emotions become less powerful and compelling. Neuroimaging studies indicate that mindfulness induces neuroplasticity and rewiring of circuitry, such that the brain is more likely to engage in moment-by-moment awareness than habitual thought patterns and emotional responses.

Compelling evidence indicates that mindfulness-based interventions have antidepressant benefits. In particular, two interventions, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), have been extensively studied and shown to decrease depressive symptoms. Very strong evidence supports the use of MBCT as an adjunctive intervention for depressive spectrum illness.

It is likely that mindfulness-based interventions impact depressive symptoms by facilitating disengagement from ruminative, self-referential thinking associated with depression.

Keywords

Mindfulness Depression Meditation Neuroimaging 

References

  1. Allen, M., Dietz, M., Blair, K. S., van Beek, M., Rees, G., Vestergaard-Poulsen, P., et al. (2012). Cognitive-affective neural plasticity following active-controlled mindfulness intervention. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(44), 15601–15610. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2957-12.2012.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Altshuler, L. L., Bookheimer, S. Y., Townsend, J., Proenza, M. A., Eisenberger, N., Sabb, F., et al. (2005). Blunted activation in orbitofrontal cortex during mania: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 58(10), 763–769. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.09.012. S0006-3223(05)01208-4 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altshuler, L., Bookheimer, S., Townsend, J., Proenza, M. A., Sabb, F., Mintz, J., et al. (2008). Regional brain changes in bipolar I depression: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Bipolar Disorders, 10, 708–717.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Amaral, D. G., & Price, J. L. (1984). Amygdalo-cortical projections in the monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Journal of Comparative Neurology, 230(4), 465–496. doi: 10.1002/cne.902300402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baerentsen, K. B., Stodkilde-Jorgensen, H., Sommerlund, B., Hartmann, T., Damsgaard-Madsen, J., Fosnaes, M., et al. (2010). An investigation of brain processes supporting meditation. Cognitive Processing, 11(1), 57–84. doi: 10.1007/s10339-009-0342-3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbas, H., & De Olmos, J. (1990). Projections from the amygdala to basoventral and mediodorsal prefrontal regions in the rhesus monkey. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 300(4), 549–571. doi: 10.1002/cne.903000409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental, and theoretical aspects. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  8. Bishop, S. R., Lau, M., Shapiro, S., Carlson, L., Anderson, N. D., Carmody, J., et al. (2004). Mindfulness: A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology-Science and Practice, 11(3), 230–241. doi: 10.1093/Clipsy/Bph077.Google Scholar
  9. Blairy, S., Linotte, S., Souery, D., Papadimitriou, G. N., Dikeos, D., Lerer, B., et al. (2004). Social adjustment and self-esteem of bipolar patients: A multicentric study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 79(1–3), 97–103. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(02)00347-6. S0165032702003476 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bondolfi, G., Jermann, F., der Linden, M. V., Gex-Fabry, M., Bizzini, L., Rouget, B. W., et al. (2010). Depression relapse prophylaxis with Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy: Replication and extension in the Swiss health care system. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122(3), 224–231. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.07.007. S0165-0327(09)00312-7 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Brefczynski-Lewis, J. A., Lutz, A., Schaefer, H. S., Levinson, D. B., & Davidson, R. J. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences United States of America, 104(27), 11483–11488. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0606552104.Google Scholar
  12. Brooks, J. O., 3rd, Wang, P. W., Bonner, J. C., Rosen, A. C., Hoblyn, J. C., Hill, S. J., et al. (2009). Decreased prefrontal, anterior cingulate, insula, and ventral striatal metabolism in medication-free depressed outpatients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43(3), 181–188. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2008.04.015. S0022-3956(08)00099-X [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, G. W., Andrews, B., Harris, T., Adler, Z., & Bridge, L. (1986). Social support, self-esteem and depression. Psychological Medicine, 16(4), 813–831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, K. W., Goodman, R. J., & Inzlicht, M. (2012). Dispositional mindfulness and the attenuation of neural responses to emotional stimuli. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss004.Google Scholar
  15. Buckwalter, J. A., Schumann, C. M., & Van Hoesen, G. W. (2008). Evidence for direct projections from the basal nucleus of the amygdala to retrosplenial cortex in the Macaque monkey. Experimental Brain Research, 186(1), 47–57. doi: 10.1007/s00221-007-1203-x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Burwell, R. A., & Shirk, S. R. (2007). Subtypes of rumination in adolescence: Associations between brooding, reflection, depressive symptoms, and coping. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 36(1), 56–65. doi: 10.1207/s15374424jccp3601_6.Google Scholar
  17. Carmichael, S. T., & Price, J. L. (1995). Limbic connections of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 363(4), 615–641. doi: 10.1002/cne.903630408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chen, C. H., Lennox, B., Jacob, R., Calder, A., Lupson, V., Bisbrown-Chippendale, R., et al. (2006). Explicit and implicit facial affect recognition in manic and depressed States of bipolar disorder: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 59(1), 31–39. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.06.008. S0006-3223(05)00714-6 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chiesa, A., & Malinowski, P. (2011). Mindfulness-based approaches: Are they all the same? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(4), 404–424. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2010a). Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for psychiatric disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2010.08.011. S0165-1781(10)00519-6 [pii].Google Scholar
  21. Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2010b). A systematic review of neurobiological and clinical features of mindfulness meditations. Psychological Medicine, 40(8), 1239–1252. doi: 10.1017/S0033291709991747.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Cooney, R. E., Joormann, J., Eugene, F., Dennis, E. L., & Gotlib, I. H. (2010). Neural correlates of rumination in depression. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 10(4), 470–478. doi: 10.3758/CABN.10.4.470. 10/4/470 [pii].Google Scholar
  23. Creswell, J. D., Way, B. M., Eisenberger, N. I., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(6), 560–565. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e3180f6171f.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Delgado, L. C., Guerra, P., Perakakis, P., Vera, M. N., Reyes del Paso, G., & Vila, J. (2010). Treating chronic worry: Psychological and physiological effects of a training programme based on mindfulness. Behavior Research and Therapy, 48(9), 873–882. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.05.012. S0005-7967(10)00108-7 [pii].Google Scholar
  25. Desbordes, G., Negi, L. T., Pace, T. W., Wallace, B. A., Raison, C. L., & Schwartz, E. L. (2012). Effects of mindful-attention and compassion meditation training on amygdala response to emotional stimuli in an ordinary, non-meditative state. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 292. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00292.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dickenson, J., Berkman, E. T., Arch, J., & Lieberman, M. D. (2013). Neural correlates of focused attention during a brief mindfulness induction. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 40–47. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss030.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Drevets, W. C., Price, J. L., Simpson, J. R., Jr., Todd, R. D., Reich, T., Vannier, M., et al. (1997). Subgenual prefrontal cortex abnormalities in mood disorders. Nature, 386(6627), 824–827. doi: 10.1038/386824a0.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunn, R. T., Kimbrell, T. A., Ketter, T. A., Frye, M. A., Willis, M. W., Luckenbaugh, D. A., et al. (2002). Principal components of the Beck depression inventory and regional cerebral metabolism in unipolar and bipolar depression. Biological Psychiatry, 51(5), 387–399. doi: S0006322301012446 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Elliott, R., Ogilvie, A., Rubinsztein, J. S., Calderon, G., Dolan, R. J., & Sahakian, B. J. (2004). Abnormal ventral frontal response during performance of an affective go/no go task in patients with mania. Biological Psychiatry, 55(12), 1163–1170. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.03.007. S0006322304003944 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans, J., Heron, J., Lewis, G., Araya, R., & Wolke, D. (2005). Negative self-schemas and the onset of depression in women: Longitudinal study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 302–307. doi: 10.1192/bjp.186.4.302. 186/4/302 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Farb, N. A., Anderson, A. K., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., & Segal, Z. V. (2010). Minding one’s emotions: Mindfulness training alters the neural expression of sadness. Emotion, 10(1), 25–33. doi: 10.1037/a0017151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Farb, N. A., Segal, Z. V., Mayberg, H., Bean, J., McKeon, D., Fatima, Z., et al. (2007). Attending to the present: Mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 2(4), 313–322. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsm030.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Farb, N. A., Segal, Z. V., & Anderson, A. K. (2013). Mindfulness meditation training alters cortical representations of interoceptive attention. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 15–26. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss066.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Ferry, A. T., Ongur, D., An, X., & Price, J. L. (2000). Prefrontal cortical projections to the striatum in macaque monkeys: Evidence for an organization related to prefrontal networks. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 425(3), 447–470. doi:10.1002/1096-9861(20000925)425:3<447::AID-CNE9>3.0.CO;2-V [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Finucane, A., & Mercer, S. W. (2006). An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry, 6, 14. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-6-14.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fischer-Schreiber, I., Ehrhard, F.-K., & Diener, M. S. (1991). The Shambhala dictionary of Buddhism and Zen (M. H. Kohn, Trans.). Boston, MA: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  37. Fjorback, L. O., Arendt, M., Ornbol, E., Fink, P., & Walach, H. (2011). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy - a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 124(2), 102–119. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0447.2011.01704.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gallagher, I. I. (2000). Philosophical conceptions of the self: Implications for cognitive science. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4(1), 14–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gara, M. A., Woolfolk, R. L., Cohen, B. D., Goldston, R. B., Allen, L. A., & Novalany, J. (1993). Perception of self and other in major depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102(1), 93–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Gard, T., Holzel, B. K., Sack, A. T., Hempel, H., Lazar, S. W., Vaitl, D., et al. (2012). Pain attenuation through mindfulness is associated with decreased cognitive control and increased sensory processing in the brain. Cerebral Cortex, 22(11), 2692–2702. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhr352.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Garrison, K. A., Santoyo, J. F., Davis, J. H., Thornhill, T. A. T., Kerr, C. E., & Brewer, J. A. (2013). Effortless awareness: Using real time neurofeedback to investigate correlates of posterior cingulate cortex activity in meditators’ self-report. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7, 440. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2013.00440.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Garrison, K. A., Scheinost, D., Worhunsky, P. D., Elwafi, H. M., Thornhill, T. A. T., Thompson, E., et al. (2013). Real-time fMRI links subjective experience with brain activity during focused attention. NeuroImage, 81, 110–118. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.05.030.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Gibbons, C. J., Fournier, J. C., Stirman, S. W., DeRubeis, R. J., Crits-Christoph, P., & Beck, A. T. (2010). The clinical effectiveness of cognitive therapy for depression in an outpatient clinic. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125(1–3), 169–176. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.12.030. S0165-0327(10)00009-1 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Godfrin, K. A., & van Heeringen, C. (2010a). The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on recurrence of depressive episodes, mental health and quality of life: A randomized controlled study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(8), 738–746. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Godfrin, K. A., & van Heeringen, C. (2010b). The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on recurrence of depressive episodes, mental health and quality of life: A randomized controlled study. Behavior Research and Therapy, 48(8), 738–746. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.04.006. S0005-7967(10)00071-9 [pii].Google Scholar
  46. Goldin, P. R., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10(1), 83–91. doi: 10.1037/a0018441.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Goldin, P., Ziv, M., Jazaieri, H., Hahn, K., & Gross, J. J. (2013). MBSR vs aerobic exercise in social anxiety: fMRI of emotion regulation of negative self-beliefs. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 65–72. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss054.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Goldin, P., Ziv, M., Jazaieri, H., & Gross, J. J. (2012). Randomized controlled trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction versus aerobic exercise: Effects on the self-referential brain network in social anxiety disorder. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 295. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00295.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Grimm, S., Boesiger, P., Beck, J., Schuepbach, D., Bermpohl, F., Walter, M., et al. (2009). Altered negative BOLD responses in the default-mode network during emotion processing in depressed subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34(4), 932–943. doi: 10.1038/npp.2008.81. npp200881 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Grimm, S., Ernst, J., Boesiger, P., Schuepbach, D., Hell, D., Boeker, H., et al. (2009). Increased self-focus in major depressive disorder is related to neural abnormalities in subcortical-cortical midline structures. Human Brain Mapping, 30(8), 2617–2627. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20693.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Gusnard, D. A., & Raichle, M. E. (2001). Searching for a baseline: Functional imaging and the resting human brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2(10), 685–694. doi: 10.1038/35094500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Haber, S. N., Kunishio, K., Mizobuchi, M., & Lynd-Balta, E. (1995). The orbital and medial prefrontal circuit through the primate basal ganglia. The Journal of Neuroscience, 15(7 Pt 1), 4851–4867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Halari, R., Simic, M., Pariante, C. M., Papadopoulos, A., Cleare, A., Brammer, M., et al. (2009). Reduced activation in lateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate during attention and cognitive control functions in medication-naive adolescents with depression compared to controls. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 50(3), 307–316. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2008.01972.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Harvey, P. O., Fossati, P., Pochon, J. B., Levy, R., Lebastard, G., Lehericy, S., et al. (2005). Cognitive control and brain resources in major depression: An fMRI study using the n-back task. NeuroImage, 26(3), 860–869. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.02.048.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hasenkamp, W., & Barsalou, L. W. (2012). Effects of meditation experience on functional connectivity of distributed brain networks. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 38. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2012.00038.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hasenkamp, W., Wilson-Mendenhall, C. D., Duncan, E., & Barsalou, L. W. (2012). Mind wandering and attention during focused meditation: A fine-grained temporal analysis of fluctuating cognitive states. NeuroImage, 59(1), 750–760. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.07.008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Heinzel, A., Bermpohl, F., Niese, R., Pfennig, A., Pascual-Leone, A., Schlaug, G., et al. (2005). How do we modulate our emotions? Parametric fMRI reveals cortical midline structures as regions specifically involved in the processing of emotional valences. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research, 25(1), 348–358. doi: 10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.06.009. S0926-6410(05)00191-6 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hill, C. L., & Updegraff, J. A. (2011). Mindfulness and its relationship to emotional regulation. Emotion. doi: 10.1037/a0026355.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Holzel, B. K., Hoge, E. A., Greve, D. N., Gard, T., Creswell, J. D., Brown, K. W., et al. (2013). Neural mechanisms of symptom improvements in generalized anxiety disorder following mindfulness training. Neuroimage: Clinical, 2, 448–458. doi: 10.1016/j.nicl.2013.03.011.Google Scholar
  60. Holzel, B. K., Ott, U., Hempel, H., Hackl, A., Wolf, K., Stark, R., et al. (2007). Differential engagement of anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex in adept meditators and non-meditators. Neuroscience Letters, 421(1), 16–21. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2007.04.074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ingram, R. E. (1990). Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: Review and a conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 156–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Ives-Deliperi, V. L., Howells, F., Stein, D. J., Meintjes, E. M., & Horn, N. (2013). The effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in patients with bipolar disorder: A controlled functional MRI investigation. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 1152–1157. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.05.074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Ives-Deliperi, V. L., Solms, M., & Meintjes, E. M. (2011). The neural substrates of mindfulness: An fMRI investigation. Social Neuroscience, 6(3), 231–242. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2010.513495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson, S. C., Baxter, L. C., Wilder, L. S., Pipe, J. G., Heiserman, J. E., & Prigatano, G. P. (2002). Neural correlates of self-reflection. Brain, 125(Pt 8), 1808–1814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Johnson, M. K., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Mitchell, K. J., & Levin, Y. (2009). Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4(4), 313–327. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsp022. nsp022 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jones, S. (2004). Psychotherapy of bipolar disorder: A review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80(2–3), 101–114. doi: 10.1016/S0165-0327(03)00111-3. S0165032703001113 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Kabat-Zinn, J. (2005). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness (Fifteenth Anniversary ed.). New York: Bantam Dell.Google Scholar
  68. Kegeles, L. S., Malone, K. M., Slifstein, M., Ellis, S. P., Xanthopoulos, E., Keilp, J. G., et al. (2003). Response of cortical metabolic deficits to serotonergic challenge in familial mood disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(1), 76–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kemeny, M. E., Foltz, C., Cavanagh, J. F., Cullen, M., Giese-Davis, J., Jennings, P., et al. (2011). Contemplative/emotion training reduces negative emotional behavior and promotes prosocial responses. Emotion. doi: 10.1037/a0026118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kilpatrick, L. A., Suyenobu, B. Y., Smith, S. R., Bueller, J. A., Goodman, T., Creswell, J. D., et al. (2011). Impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction training on intrinsic brain connectivity. NeuroImage, 56(1), 290–298. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.02.034.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. King, C. A., Naylor, M. W., Segal, H. G., Evans, T., & Shain, B. N. (1993). Global self-worth, specific self-perceptions of competence, and depression in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(4), 745–752. doi: 10.1097/00004583-199307000-00007. S0890-8567(09)64863-2 [pii].Google Scholar
  72. Kirk, U., Downar, J., & Montague, P. R. (2011). Interoception drives increased rational decision-making in meditators playing the ultimatum game. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 5, 49. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2011.00049.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kozasa, E. H., Sato, J. R., Lacerda, S. S., Barreiros, M. A., Radvany, J., Russell, T. A., et al. (2012). Meditation training increases brain efficiency in an attention task. NeuroImage, 59(1), 745–749. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.088.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kuyken, W., Byford, S., Taylor, R. S., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., et al. (2008). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy to prevent relapse in recurrent depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(6), 966–978. doi: 10.1037/a0013786. 2008-16943-016 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lagopoulos, J., & Malhi, G. (2011). Impairments in “top-down” processing in bipolar disorder: A simultaneous fMRI-GSR study. Psychiatry Research, 192(2), 100–108. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.11.011. S0925-4927(10)00397-5 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lauder, S. D., Berk, M., Castle, D. J., Dodd, S., & Berk, L. (2010). The role of psychotherapy in bipolar disorder. The Medical Journal of Australia, 193(4 Suppl), S31–S35. doi: lau11471_fm [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lemogne, C., Gorwood, P., Bergouignan, L., Pelissolo, A., Lehericy, S., & Fossati, P. (2010). Negative affectivity, self-referential processing and the cortical midline structures. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsq049. nsq049 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lennox, B. R., Jacob, R., Calder, A. J., Lupson, V., & Bullmore, E. T. (2004). Behavioural and neurocognitive responses to sad facial affect are attenuated in patients with mania. Psychological Medicine, 34(5), 795–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Liotti, M., Mayberg, H. S., McGinnis, S., Brannan, S. L., & Jerabek, P. (2002). Unmasking disease-specific cerebral blood flow abnormalities: Mood challenge in patients with remitted unipolar depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(11), 1830–1840.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Lo, C. S., Ho, S. M., & Hollon, S. D. (2010). The effects of rumination and depressive symptoms on the prediction of negative attributional style among college students. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 34(2), 116–123. doi: 10.1007/s10608-009-9233-2.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lutz, J., Herwig, U., Opialla, S., Hittmeyer, A., Jancke, L., Rufer, M., et al. (2013). Mindfulness and emotion regulation–an fMRI study. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. doi: 10.1093/scan/nst043.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lutz, A., McFarlin, D. R., Perlman, D. M., Salomons, T. V., & Davidson, R. J. (2013). Altered anterior insula activation during anticipation and experience of painful stimuli in expert meditators. NeuroImage, 64, 538–546. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.09.030.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lutz, A., Slagter, H. A., Dunne, J. D., & Davidson, R. J. (2008). Attention regulation and monitoring in meditation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12(4), 163–169. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2008.01.005.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Malhi, G. S., Lagopoulos, J., Ward, P. B., Kumari, V., Mitchell, P. B., Parker, G. B., et al. (2004). Cognitive generation of affect in bipolar depression: An fMRI study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19(3), 741–754. doi: 3159 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Manicavasgar, V., Parker, G., & Perich, T. (2010). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy vs cognitive behaviour therapy as a treatment for non-melancholic depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.09.027. S0165-0327(10)00608-7 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Manicavasgar, V., Parker, G., & Perich, T. (2011). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy vs cognitive behaviour therapy as a treatment for non-melancholic depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 130(1–2), 138–144. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2010.09.027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Marchand, W. R. (2010). Cortico-basal ganglia circuitry: A review of key research and implications for functional connectivity studies of mood and anxiety disorders. Brain Structure and Function, 215(2), 73–96. doi: 10.1007/s00429-010-0280-y.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Marchand, W. R. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and Zen meditation for depression, anxiety, pain, and psychological distress. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 18(4), 233–252. doi: 10.1097/01.pra.0000416014.53215.86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Marchand, W. R., Lee, J. N., Garn, C., Thatcher, J., Gale, P., Kreitschitz, S., et al. (2011). Aberrant emotional processing in posterior cortical midline structures in bipolar II depression. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2011.05.017. S0278-5846(11)00187-4 [pii].Google Scholar
  90. Marchand, W. R., Lee, J. N., Johnson, S., Thatcher, J., Gale, P., Wood, N., et al. (2012). Striatal and cortical midline circuits in major depression: Implications for suicide and symptom expression. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 36(2), 290–299. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2011.10.016.Google Scholar
  91. Marchand, W. R., Lee, J. N., Johnson, S., Thatcher, J., & Gale, P. (2013). Striatal circuit function is associated with prior self-harm in remitted major depression. Neuroscience Letters, 557(Pt B), 154–158. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.10.053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Marchand, W. R., Lee, J. N., Suchy, Y., Johnson, S., Thatcher, J., & Gale, P. (2012). Aberrant functional connectivity of cortico-basal ganglia circuits in major depression. Neuroscience Letters, 514(1), 86–90. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.02.063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Marchand, W. R., Lee, J. N., Thatcher, J. W., Hsu, E. W., Rashkin, E., Suchy, Y., et al. (2008). Putamen coactivation during motor task execution. Neuroreport, 19(9), 957–960. doi:10.1097/WNR.0b013e328302c87300001756-200806110-00011 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Marchand, W. R., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. (2010). Striatal structure and function in mood disorders: A comprehensive review. Bipolar Disorders, 12(8), 764–785. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00874.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Mason, M. F., Norton, M. I., Van Horn, J. D., Wegner, D. M., Grafton, S. T., & Macrae, C. N. (2007). Wandering minds: The default network and stimulus-independent thought. Science, 315(5810), 393–395. doi: 10.1126/science.1131295.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Mathew, K. L., Whitford, H. S., Kenny, M. A., & Denson, L. A. (2010). The long-term effects of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy as a relapse prevention treatment for major depressive disorder. Behavioral and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 38(5), 561–576. doi: 10.1017/S135246581000010X. S135246581000010X [pii].Google Scholar
  97. Mayberg, H. S., Brannan, S. K., Tekell, J. L., Silva, J. A., Mahurin, R. K., McGinnis, S., et al. (2000). Regional metabolic effects of fluoxetine in major depression: Serial changes and relationship to clinical response. Biological Psychiatry, 48(8), 830–843. doi: S0006-3223(00)01036-2 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. McKiernan, K. A., D’Angelo, B. R., Kaufman, J. N., & Binder, J. R. (2006). Interrupting the “stream of consciousness”: An fMRI investigation. NeuroImage, 29(4), 1185–1191. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.09.030.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Michalak, J., Holz, A., & Teismann, T. (2010). Rumination as a predictor of relapse in mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. Psychology & Psychotherapy. doi: 10.1348/147608310X520166. pptrp580 [pii].Google Scholar
  100. Miller, L., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., & Weissman, M. (1999). Self-esteem and depression: Ten year follow-up of mothers and offspring. Journal of Affective Disorders, 52(1–3), 41–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Mor, N., & Winquist, J. (2002). Self-focused attention and negative affect: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 128(4), 638–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nilsson, K. K., Jorgensen, C. R., Craig, T. K., Straarup, K. N., & Licht, R. W. (2010). Self-esteem in remitted bipolar disorder patients: A meta-analysis. Bipolar Disorders, 12(6), 585–592. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-5618.2010.00856.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Northoff, G. (2007). Psychopathology and pathophysiology of the self in depression - neuropsychiatric hypothesis. Journal of Affective Disorders, 104(1–3), 1–14. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.02.012. S0165-0327(07)00084-5 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Northoff, G., & Bermpohl, F. (2004). Cortical midline structures and the self. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8(3), 102–107. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2004.01.004S136466130400021X [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Northoff, G., Heinzel, A., de Greck, M., Bermpohl, F., Dobrowolny, H., & Panksepp, J. (2006). Self-referential processing in our brain–a meta-analysis of imaging studies on the self. NeuroImage, 31(1), 440–457. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.002. S1053-8119(05)02515-2 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Osuch, E. A., Bluhm, R. L., Williamson, P. C., Theberge, J., Densmore, M., & Neufeld, R. W. (2009). Brain activation to favorite music in healthy controls and depressed patients. Neuroreport, 20(13), 1204–1208. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32832f4da3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Pagnoni, G. (2012). Dynamical properties of BOLD activity from the ventral posteromedial cortex associated with meditation and attentional skills. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(15), 5242–5249. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4135-11.2012.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Pagnoni, G., Cekic, M., & Guo, Y. (2008). “Thinking about not-thinking”: Neural correlates of conceptual processing during Zen meditation. PLoS ONE, 3(9), e3083. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0003083.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Parvizi, J., Van Hoesen, G. W., Buckwalter, J., & Damasio, A. (2006). Neural connections of the posteromedial cortex in the macaque. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences United States of America, 103(5), 1563–1568. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0507729103. 0507729103 [pii].Google Scholar
  110. Paul, N. A., Stanton, S. J., Greeson, J. M., Smoski, M. J., & Wang, L. (2013). Psychological and neural mechanisms of trait mindfulness in reducing depression vulnerability. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 56–64. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss070.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Piet, J., & Hougaard, E. (2011). The effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for prevention of relapse in recurrent major depressive disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(6), 1032–1040. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2011.05.002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pizzagalli, D. A., Holmes, A. J., Dillon, D. G., Goetz, E. L., Birk, J. L., Bogdan, R., et al. (2009). Reduced caudate and nucleus accumbens response to rewards in unmedicated individuals with major depressive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 166(6), 702–710. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08081201. appi.ajp.2008.08081201 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Porrino, L. J., Crane, A. M., & Goldman-Rakic, P. S. (1981). Direct and indirect pathways from the amygdala to the frontal lobe in rhesus monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 198(1), 121–136. doi: 10.1002/cne.901980111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 1–23. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Raichle, M. E., MacLeod, A. M., Snyder, A. Z., Powers, W. J., Gusnard, D. A., & Shulman, G. L. (2001). A default mode of brain function. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences United States of America, 98(2), 676–682. doi:10.1073/pnas.98.2.67698/2/676 [pii].Google Scholar
  116. Raz, A., & Buhle, J. (2006). Typologies of attentional networks. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 7(5), 367–379. doi: 10.1038/nrn1903.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Rimes, K. A., & Watkins, E. (2005). The effects of self-focused rumination on global negative self-judgements in depression. Behavior Research and Therapy, 43(12), 1673–1681. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2004.12.002. S0005-7967(05)00018-5 [pii].Google Scholar
  118. Ritchey, M., Dolcos, F., Eddington, K. M., Strauman, T. J., & Cabeza, R. (2010). Neural correlates of emotional processing in depression: Changes with cognitive behavioral therapy and predictors of treatment response. Journal of Psychiatric Research. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.09.007. S0022-3956(10)00274-8 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Robins, C. J., Keng, S. L., Ekblad, A. G., & Brantley, J. G. (2012). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on emotional experience and expression: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 68(1), 117–131. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20857.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sakamoto, S. (1999). A longitudinal study of the relationship of self-preoccupation with depression. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 55(1), 109–116. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4679(199901)55:1<109::AID-JCLP11>3.0.CO;2–8 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Salmon, P., Sephton, S., Weissbecker, I., Hoover, K., Ulmer, C., & Studts, J. L. (2004). Mindfulness meditation in clinical practice. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 11(4), 434–446.Google Scholar
  122. Schafer, R. B., & Keith, P. M. (1981). Self-esteem discrepancies and depression. Journal of Psychology, 109(1st Half), 43–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Scheuerecker, J., Meisenzahl, E. M., Koutsouleris, N., Roesner, M., Schopf, V., Linn, J., et al. (2010). Orbitofrontal volume reductions during emotion recognition in patients with major depression. Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 35(5), 311–320. doi:10.1503/jpn.090076 [pii]10.1503/jpn.090076.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Segal, Z. V., Bieling, P., Young, T., MacQueen, G., Cooke, R., Martin, L., et al. (2010). Antidepressant monotherapy vs sequential pharmacotherapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, or placebo, for relapse prophylaxis in recurrent depression. Archives of Genera, Psychiatry, 67(12), 1256–1264. doi: 10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2010.168.Google Scholar
  125. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  126. Shambhala Dragon Editions. (1991). The shambhala dictionary of Buddhism and zen. Boston: Shambhala.Google Scholar
  127. Shapiro, D. H. (1992). A preliminary study of long term meditators: Goals, effects, religious orientation, cognitions. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 24, 23–39.Google Scholar
  128. Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 373–386. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Shaurya Prakash, R., De Leon, A. A., Klatt, M., Malarkey, W., & Patterson, B. (2013). Mindfulness disposition and default-mode network connectivity in older adults. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 112–117. doi: 10.1093/scan/nss115.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Shestyuk, A. Y., & Deldin, P. J. (2010). Automatic and strategic representation of the self in major depression: Trait and state abnormalities. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167(5), 536–544. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.06091444. appi.ajp.2009.06091444 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Smallwood, J., & Schooler, J. W. (2006). The restless mind. Psychological Bulletin, 132(6), 946–958. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.6.946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Smith, G. S., Kramer, E., Ma, Y., Kingsley, P., Dhawan, V., Chaly, T., et al. (2009). The functional neuroanatomy of geriatric depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 24(8), 798–808. doi: 10.1002/gps.2185.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Smoski, M. J., Felder, J., Bizzell, J., Green, S. R., Ernst, M., Lynch, T. R., et al. (2009). fMRI of alterations in reward selection, anticipation, and feedback in major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 118(1–3), 69–78. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.01.034. S0165-0327(09)00044-5 [pii].PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Spasojevic, J., & Alloy, L. B. (2001). Rumination as a common mechanism relating depressive risk factors to depression. Emotion, 1(1), 25–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Taylor, V. A., Daneault, V., Grant, J., Scavone, G., Breton, E., Roffe-Vidal, S., et al. (2013). Impact of meditation training on the default mode network during a restful state. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8(1), 4–14. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsr087.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Taylor, V. A., Grant, J., Daneault, V., Scavone, G., Breton, E., Roffe-Vidal, S., et al. (2011). Impact of mindfulness on the neural responses to emotional pictures in experienced and beginner meditators. NeuroImage, 57(4), 1524–1533. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.06.001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Teasdale, J. D. (1999). Emotional processing, three modes of mind and the prevention of relapse in depression. Behavior Research and Therapy, 37(Suppl 1), S53–S77.Google Scholar
  138. van Aalderen, J. R., Donders, A. R., Giommi, F., Spinhoven, P., Barendregt, H. P., & Speckens, A. E. (2011). The efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in recurrent depressed patients with and without a current depressive episode: A randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 1–13. doi:  10.1017/S0033291711002054
  139. Walsh, R., & Shapiro, S. L. (2006). The meeting of meditative disciplines and Western psychology: A mutually enriching dialogue. American Psychologist, 61(3), 227–239. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.61.3.227. 2006-03947-004 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Walter, H., Wolf, R. C., Spitzer, M., & Vasic, N. (2007). Increased left prefrontal activation in patients with unipolar depression: An event-related, parametric, performance-controlled fMRI study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 101(1–3), 175–185. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2006.11.017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Watkins, E. (2004). Adaptive and maladaptive ruminative self-focus during emotional processing. Behavior Research and Therapy, 42(9), 1037–1052. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2004.01.009 S0005796704001172 [pii].Google Scholar
  142. Watkins, E., & Teasdale, J. D. (2004). Adaptive and maladaptive self-focus in depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 82(1), 1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2003.10.006. S016503270300288X [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Wells, R. E., Yeh, G. Y., Kerr, C. E., Wolkin, J., Davis, R. B., Tan, Y., et al. (2013). Meditation’s impact on default mode network and hippocampus in mild cognitive impairment: A pilot study. Neuroscience Letters, 556, 15–19. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2013.10.001.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Williams, A. D., & Moulds, M. L. (2010). The impact of ruminative processing on the experience of self-referent intrusive memories in dysphoria. Behavior Therapy, 41(1), 38–45. doi: 10.1016/j.beth.2008.12.003. S0005-7894(09)00042-2 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Work Group on Major Depressive Disorder. (2010). American psychiatric association practice guideline for the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder (3rd ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric.Google Scholar
  146. Wright, J. H., Beck, A. T., & Thase, M. E. (2003). Cognitive therapy. In R. E. Hales & S. C. Yudofsky (Eds.), Textbook of clinical psychiatry (4th ed., pp. 1245–1284). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric.Google Scholar
  147. Wu, J., Buchsbaum, M. S., Gillin, J. C., Tang, C., Cadwell, S., Wiegand, M., et al. (1999). Prediction of antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation by metabolic rates in the ventral anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(8), 1149–1158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Yoshimura, S., Okamoto, Y., Onoda, K., Matsunaga, M., Ueda, K., Suzuki, S., et al. (2010). Rostral anterior cingulate cortex activity mediates the relationship between the depressive symptoms and the medial prefrontal cortex activity. Journal of Affective Disorders, 122(1–2), 76–85. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.06.017. S0165-0327(09)00277-8 [pii].PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Zeidan, F., Martucci, K. T., Kraft, R. A., Gordon, N. S., McHaffie, J. G., & Coghill, R. C. (2011). Brain mechanisms supporting the modulation of pain by mindfulness meditation. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(14), 5540–5548. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5791-10.2011.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Zeidan, F., Martucci, K. T., Kraft, R. A., McHaffie, J. G., & Coghill, R. C. (2013). Neural correlates of mindfulness meditation-related anxiety relief. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. doi: 10.1093/scan/nst041.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.George E. Wahlen VAMCSalt Lake CityUSA

Personalised recommendations