Exploring New Production Methods of Hydrogen/Natural Gas Blends

Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

In this chapter, we present concepts for hydrogen production technologies that create mixtures of hydrogen with natural gas, for either the gas grid or the standalone fuel; enriched methane. In the production of hydrogen from the natural gas itself, full conversion of methane into hydrogen is no longer necessary, as it is in conventional hydrogen production technologies, because the hydrogen is to be mixed with natural gas. In this study explored the production of hydrogen/natural gas blends through steam reforming of natural gas and through thermal and plasma decomposition of methane. The production methods considered are assessed on a conceptual design level. An interesting option is the production of hydrogen/natural gas blends by an internal reforming fuel cell, whereby effective heat integration is applied and at the same time electricity is produced at high total efficiency. We also investigate potentially simplified conversion routes from biomass compared to current conversion routes that aim at the production of pure hydrogen. Two examples, supercritical gasification and a bio-technological route, illustrate the production of hydrogen/natural gas blends from biomass.

Keywords

Thermal and plasma decomposition of methane Distribution grids Enriched methane production processes Production from biomass 

List of Symbols

ΔG (J/mol)

Change in Gibbs free energy

ΔH (J/mol)

Change in enthalpy

η

Efficiency

ηfc

Fuel cell efficiency

ΔS (J/mol K)

Change in entropy

T (K)

Temperature

V (Volt)

Volt

i (A/m2)

Current density

r (Ω m2)

Specific internal resistance

uf

Fuel utilization

α (Volt)

Slope of local Nernst potential as a function of u f

List of Acronyms

CHP

Combined heat and power

CSP

Concentrated solar power

DCFC

Direct carbon fuel cell

HHV

Higher heating value

EM

Enriched methane

ICE

Internal combustion engine

IR

Internal reforming

MCFC

Molten carbonate fuel cell

NG

Natural gas

SMR

Steam methane reforming

SOFC

Solid oxide fuel cell

Notes

Acknowledgments

This chapter is based on the research performed in the framework of the Dutch national project “The Greening of Gas” Project number EETK01011. The author acknowledges the contribution of his co-authors in this early article [1]. The work has partly been financed by a grant of the Energy Delta Gas Research (EDGaR) program. EDGaR is co-financed by the Northern Netherlands Provinces, the European Fund for Regional Development, the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation and the Province of Groningen.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.TU DelftDelftThe Netherlands

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