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Using Natural Gas/Hydrogen Mixture as a Fuel in a 6-Cylinder Stoichiometric Spark Ignition Engine

  • Luigi De Simio
  • Michele Gambino
  • Sabato Iannaccone
Chapter
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)

Abstract

Hydrogen added to natural gas improves the process of combustion with the possibility to develop engines with higher performance and lower environmental impact. In this chapter, experimental analyses on multi-cylinder heavy duty engines, fuelled with natural gas–hydrogen blends, are reported. Theoretical aspects on engine performance are illustrated and a formula to evaluate the benefit of H2 addition on NG combustion is defined. Experimental data on the effects of air index and exhaust gas recycling on combustion with different NG/H2 blends are discussed followed by an experimental comparison of stoichiometric and lean-burn strategies on the European transient cycle for heavy duty emission certification. Results of the study indicate that a right metering of hydrogen into the natural gas and an optimization of the charge dilution provides not only a reduction in tailpipe CO2 emissions and a more complete combustion process with a lower formation of THC and CO, but also a possible increase in engine efficiency, avoiding abnormal combustion phenomena.

Keywords

Fast Combustion Brake Mean Effective Pressure Wide Open Throttle European Transient Cycle Wall Heat Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Acronyms

BGC

Burning gravity centre

BMEP

Brake mean effective pressure

BSEC

Brake specific energy consumption

BSFC

Brake specific fuel consumption

CAD

Crank angle degree

CNG

Compressed natural gas

ECU

Electronic control unit

EEV

Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle

EGR

Exhaust gas recycling

ETC

European transient cycle

FID

Flame ionization detector

HCNG

Hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas

HD

Heavy duty

HR

Heat release

ID

Incubation duration

LHV

Lower heating value

MAP

Manifold absolute pressure

MCD

Main combustion duration

MV

Mean value

NG

Natural gas

NGup

Natural gas unburned percentage

NMHC

Non-methane hydrocarbons

PT

Particulate matter

SA

Spark advance

SD

Standard deviation

SI

Spark ignition

THC

Total hydrocarbons

TWC

Three-way catalyst

UEGO

Universal exhaust gas oxygen

WG

Wastegate

WOT

Wide open throttle

List of Symbols

TTS

Energy content of the air–fuel stoichiometric mixture

yH2

Mass fraction of H2 in the NG/H2 blend

\(\dot{m}\)

Mass flow rate

P

Power

List of Greek Symbols

ρmix,st

Density of the air–fuel stoichiometric mixture

αst

Stoichiometric air–fuel ratio

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigi De Simio
    • 1
  • Michele Gambino
    • 1
  • Sabato Iannaccone
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Motori–National Research CouncilNaplesItaly

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