Using Natural Gas/Hydrogen Mixture as a Fuel in a 6-Cylinder Stoichiometric Spark Ignition Engine

  • Luigi De SimioEmail author
  • Michele Gambino
  • Sabato Iannaccone
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


Hydrogen added to natural gas improves the process of combustion with the possibility to develop engines with higher performance and lower environmental impact. In this chapter, experimental analyses on multi-cylinder heavy duty engines, fuelled with natural gas–hydrogen blends, are reported. Theoretical aspects on engine performance are illustrated and a formula to evaluate the benefit of H2 addition on NG combustion is defined. Experimental data on the effects of air index and exhaust gas recycling on combustion with different NG/H2 blends are discussed followed by an experimental comparison of stoichiometric and lean-burn strategies on the European transient cycle for heavy duty emission certification. Results of the study indicate that a right metering of hydrogen into the natural gas and an optimization of the charge dilution provides not only a reduction in tailpipe CO2 emissions and a more complete combustion process with a lower formation of THC and CO, but also a possible increase in engine efficiency, avoiding abnormal combustion phenomena.


Fast Combustion Brake Mean Effective Pressure Wide Open Throttle European Transient Cycle Wall Heat Loss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Acronyms


Burning gravity centre


Brake mean effective pressure


Brake specific energy consumption


Brake specific fuel consumption


Crank angle degree


Compressed natural gas


Electronic control unit


Enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle


Exhaust gas recycling


European transient cycle


Flame ionization detector


Hydrogen-enriched compressed natural gas


Heavy duty


Heat release


Incubation duration


Lower heating value


Manifold absolute pressure


Main combustion duration


Mean value


Natural gas


Natural gas unburned percentage


Non-methane hydrocarbons


Particulate matter


Spark advance


Standard deviation


Spark ignition


Total hydrocarbons


Three-way catalyst


Universal exhaust gas oxygen




Wide open throttle

List of Symbols


Energy content of the air–fuel stoichiometric mixture


Mass fraction of H2 in the NG/H2 blend


Mass flow rate



List of Greek Symbols


Density of the air–fuel stoichiometric mixture


Stoichiometric air–fuel ratio


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luigi De Simio
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michele Gambino
    • 1
  • Sabato Iannaccone
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Motori–National Research CouncilNaplesItaly

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