Models of Dissolved Component Transport at the Hillslope Scale

  • Vyacheslav G. Rumynin
Part of the Theory and Applications of Transport in Porous Media book series (TATP, volume 26)


Rain water on the landscape of a drainage basin can be contaminated by substances that have accumulated on the surface of soil or in its top layer, thus making water flow the major transport and redistribution factor of chemicals (solutes, chemical components, contaminants) at the solid and air interphase. In the rain periods, the contamination hazard is the greatest for surface water streams and bodies. In agricultural regions, fertilizers and pesticides are washed out from fields. In urbanized areas, surface runoff supplies surface waters with dissolved oil products, combustion products of transport fuel, heavy metals, as well as bacteria-polluted waters from emergency sewage spills. A specific class of problems is associated with forecasting radionuclide washout from zones of radioactive pollution, i.e., the areas subject to fallouts of gas-aerosol emissions from facilities of nuclear industry or power engineering, primarily, during emergencies, as well as areas of emergency spills of liquid radioactive wastes.


  1. Ahuja LR (1982) Release of soluble chemical from soil to runoff. Trans Am Soc Agric Eng 25:948–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ahuja LR, Sharpley AN, Yamamoto M (1981) The depth of rainfall-runoff-soil interaction as determined by 32P. Water Resour Res 17(4):969–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ahuja LR, Lehman OR (1983) The extent and nature of rainfall–soil interaction in the release of soluble chemicals to runoff. J Environ Qual 12:34–40. doi: 10.2134/jeq1983.00472425001 200010005x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Akan AO (1987) Pollutant washoff by overland flow. J Environ Eng 113(4):811–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Beven KJ (1981) Kinematic subsurface stormflow. Water Resour Res 17(5):1419–1424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beven KJ, Germann PF (1982) Macropores and water flow in soils. Water Resour Res 18(5):1311–1325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown VA, McDonnell JJ, Burns DA et al (1999) The role of event water, a rapid shallow flow component, and catchment size in summer stormflow. J Hydrol 217:171–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brutsaert W (2005) Hydrology: an Introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, p 605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Buttle JM (1994) Isotope hydrograph separations and rapid delivery of pre-event water from drainage basins. Progr Phys Hydrol 18:6–41Google Scholar
  10. Deng ZQ, de Lima JLMP, Singh VP (2005) Transport rate-based model for overland flow and solute transport: parameter estimation and process simulation. J Hydrol 315:220–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dong W, Wang Q (2013) Modeling soil solute release into runoff and transport with runoff on a loess slope. J Hydrol Eng 18:527–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Downer CW, Ogden FL (2004) GSSHA: a model for simulating diverse streamflow generating processes. J Hydrol Eng 9(3):161–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Emmerich WE, Woolhiser DA, Shirley ED (1989) Comparison of lumped and distributed models for chemical transport by surface runoff. J Environ Qual 18(1):120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Freeze AR, Cherry JA (1979) Groundwater. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, p 609Google Scholar
  15. Gao B, Walter MT, Steenhuis TS et al (2003) Investigating ponding depth and soil detachability for a mechanistic erosion model using a simple experiment. J Hydrol 277:116–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gao B, Walter MT, Steenhuis TS et al (2004) Rainfall induced chemical transport from soil to runoff: theory and experiments. J Hydrol 295:291–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gao B, Walter MT, Steenhuis TS et al (2005) Investigating raindrop effects on transport of sediment and non-sorbed chemicals from soil to surface runoff. J Hydrol 308:313–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Germann PF (1990) Preferential flow and generation of runoff. Boundary layer flow theory. Water Resour Res 26(12):3055–3063Google Scholar
  19. Govindaraju RS (1996) Modeling overland flow contamination by chemicals mixed in shallow soil horizons under variable source area hydrology. Water Resour Res 32(3):753–758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Havis RN, Smith RE, Adrian DD (1992) Partitioning solute transport between infiltration and overland flow under rainfall. Water Resour Res 28:2569–2580CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Herbert BE, Przepiora (1995) Particle-mediated transport of nonpoint-source pollutants. In: Jordan W, Jensen R (eds) Proceedings of the 24th Water for Texas Conference. Texas Water Research Institute, Austin, pp 367–376Google Scholar
  22. Johnson B, Zhang Z (2007) Development of a distributed source contaminant rransport, transformation, and fate (CTT&F) Sub-model for military installations. Environmental Laboratory US. Army Engineering Research and Development Center. Final report. ERDC/EL TR-07-10, p 65Google Scholar
  23. Jones JP, Sudicky EA, Brookfield AE et al (2006) An assessment of the tracer-based approach to quantifying groundwater contributions to streamflow. Water Resour Res 42. doi:  10.1029/2005WR004130
  24. Kirchner JW (2003) A double paradox in catchment hydrology and geochemistry. Hydrol Process 17:871–874CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Liggett JE, Werner AD, Smerdon B et al (2014) Fully integrated modeling of surface-subsurface solute transport and the effect of dispersion in tracer hydrograph separation. Water Resour Res 50:7750–7765. doi: 10.1002/2013WR015040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McDonnell JJ (1990) A rationale for old water discharge through macropores in a steep, humid catchment. Water Resour Res 26(11):2821–2832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Peters DL, Buttle JM, Taylor CH et al (1995) Runoff production in a forested, shallow soil, Canadian shield basin. Water Resour Res 31(5):1291–1304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Proffitt A, Rose C, Hairsine P (1991) Rainfall detachment and deposition: experiments with low slopes and significant water depths. Soil Sci Soc Am 55:325–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Rivlin J, Wallach R (1995) An analytical solution for the lateral transport of dissolved chemicals in overland flow. Water Resour 31(4):1031–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rumynin VG (2011) Subsurface solute transport models and case histories (with applications to radionuclide migration), vol 25, Theory and applications of transport in porous media. Springer Science + Business Media BV, Dordrecht, p 815CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Shi X, Wu L, Chen W et al (2011) Solute transfer from the soil surface to overland flow: a review. J Soil Sci Soc Am 75(4):1214–1225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Singh VP (1997) Kinematic wave modeling in water resources: environmental hydrology. Wiley–Interscience, New York, p 830Google Scholar
  33. Singh VP (2002a) Kinematic wave solutions for pollutant transport by runoff over an impervious plane, with instantaneous or finite-period mixing. Hydrol Process 16:1831–1863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Singh VP (2002b) Kinematic wave solutions for pollutant transport over an infiltrating plane with finite-period mixing and mixing zone. Hydrol Process 16:2441–2477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sklash MG, Farvolden RN (1979) The role of groundwater in storm runoff. J Hydrol 43:45–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Snyder IK, Woolhiser DA (1985) Effects of infiltration on chemical transport onto overland flow. Trans Am Soc Agric Eng 28:1450–1457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tong J-X, Yang J-Z, Hu BX et al (2010) Experimental study and mathematical modelling of soluble chemical transfer from unsaturated/saturated soil to surface runoff. Hydrol Process 24:3065–3073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Turnbull L, Wainwright J, Brazier RE (2010) Hydrology, erosion and nutrient transfers over a transition from semi-arid grassland to shrubland in the South-Western USA: a modelling assessment. J Hydrol 388:258–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Van der Perk M (2006) Soil and water contamination, 2nd ed. Taylor & Francis, London/New York, p 389Google Scholar
  40. Wallach R (1991) Runoff contamination by soil chemicals-time scales approach. Water Resour Res 27:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wallach R, Jury WA, Spencer WF (1989) The concept of convective mass transfer for prediction of surface-runoff pollution by soil surface applied chemicals. J Trans ASAE 32:906–912CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wallach R, van Genuchten MT (1990) A physically based model for predicting solute transfer from soil to rainfall-induced runoff. Water Resour Res 26(9):2119–2126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wallach R, William AJ, William FS (1988) Transfer of chemical from soil solution to surface runoff: a diffusion-based soil model. J Soil Sci Soc Am 52:612–617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wallach R, Grigorin G, Rivlin J (2001) A comprehensive mathematical model for transport of soil-dissolved chemicals by overland flow. J Hydrol 247:85–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Walter MT, Gao B, Parlange J-Y (2007) Modeling soil solute release into runoff with infiltration. J Hydrol 347:430–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Walton RS, Volker RE, Bristow KL et al (2000) Solute transport by surface runoff from low-angle slopes: theory and application. Hydrol Process 14:1139–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Weiler M, Uchida T, McDonnell J (2003) Connectivity due to preferential flow controls water flow and solute transport at the hillslope scale. Proceedings of MODSIM, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang XC, Norton LD, Lei T et al (1999) Coupling mixing zone concept with convection-diffusion equation to predict chemical transfer to surface runoff. Trans ASAE 42(4):987–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vyacheslav G. Rumynin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Environmental GeologyThe Russian Academy of SciencesSaint PetersburgRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Earth SciencesSaint Petersburg State UniversitySaint PetersburgRussia

Personalised recommendations