The Complexity of Data Aggregation in Static and Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks
The key feature of wireless sensor networks is to aggregate data collected by individual sensors in an energy efficient manner. We consider two techniques to save energy. The first one is to avoid collisions due to simultaneous transmissions among neighboring nodes. Second, when a node receives data from multiple neighbors, it aggregates these with its own data. Then, one transmission is sufficient to transmit all consolidated data to another neighbor. If the overall delay has to be kept as low as possible, scheduling sensors to avoid collisions while aggregating data becomes challenging.
The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we give tight bounds for the complexity of data aggregation in static networks. In more details, we show that the problem remains NP-complete when the graph is of degree at most three. As it is trivial to solve the problem in static graphs of degree at most two, our result implies that the problem is intrinsically difficult for any practical setting. Second, we investigate the complexity of the same problem in a dynamic network, that is, a network whose topology can evolve through time. In the case of dynamic networks, we show that the problem is NP-complete even in the case where the graph is of degree at most two (and it is trivial to solve the problem when the graph is of degree at most one). Third, we give the first lower and upper bounds for the minimum data aggregation time in a dynamic graph.
We observe that even in a well-connected evolving graphs, the optimal solution cannot be found by a distributed algorithm or by a centralized algorithm that does not know the future. Thus we finally give the first approximation algorithm (centralized that knows the future) whose approximation factor is \(T(n-1)\) if there exists a bound T such that there is a journey (a path in a dynamic graph) for all pairs of nodes in every time interval \([t, t+T]\).
KeywordsData aggregation Dynamic graphs Complexity
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