Advertisement

The High North pp 113-155 | Cite as

The Political Dimension: North European Countries and the High North

Chapter
  • 397 Downloads

Abstract

The Nordic states are very active and much engaged members of the Arctic community. Similarly to other Arctic states, they are jockeying for the most favorable position to partake of the new opportunities which are opening in the Arctic part of the High North. The Nordic authorities treat this area with extreme seriousness which translates into actions to develop a comprehensive policy in the region. The prospects set by the Nordic governments were ahead of their time or too far-reaching. However, the plus side definitely was that although the Strategies were dedicated primarily to the existing natural resources there, they treated also on much broader issues than oil and gas. They also deal with ensuring sustainable harvesting of the fish stocks in northern waters, monitoring the state of ecosystems and research studies, strengthening and expanding cooperation with Russia, safeguarding the rights of indigenous peoples, etc. In addition, it is extremely important that together with broadening the issues of the Northern Areas by including onshore land areas (until then, there was a tendency to limit the High North only to marine offshore areas), the governments envisaged the necessity of discussing these issues in the fora of NATO, EU, UN, and in the USA.

Keywords

Opportunities and challenges Nordic countries Coexistence and knowledge Russia’s policy Russia in Arctic 

References

  1. Aлeкcaндpoв, O. B. (2012). Ceвepный вeктop внeшнeй пoлитики Poccии: внeшняя пoлитикa Poccии нa Бaлтикe, в peгиoнe Ceвepнoй Eвpoпы и в Apктикe (p. 146). Cпyтник: Mocквa.Google Scholar
  2. Aftenposten, June 06, 2006.Google Scholar
  3. Bafia, M., Bartosik, A., Drwal, M., & Gajdzica, M. (2012). Arktyka – prognoza wybuchu potencjalnego konfliktu zbrojnego o surowce naturalne, http://www.geopolityka.org/analizy/1900-arktyka-prognoza-wybuchu-potencjalnego-konfliktu-zbrojnego-o-surowce-naturalne, 01 December 2012 08:43. Retrieved February 05, 2013.
  4. Curanović, A. (2010). Aktywność Federacji Rosyjskiej w regionie Arktyki w kontekście rywalizacji mocarstw. Lublin: Instytut Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej.Google Scholar
  5. Czarny, R. M. (2002). Szwecja w Unii Europejskiej. Studium polityczno – prawne (pp. 17–71). Kielce, part I.Google Scholar
  6. Czarny, R. M. (2009). Dylematy energetyczne państw regionu nordyckiego. Kielce: Scandinavium.Google Scholar
  7. Doyle, A., & Koranyi, B. Svolvaer, Norway, Mar 12, 2013. Retrieved March 22, 2013 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/03/12/uk-norways-arctic-idyll-shivers-at-oil-p-idUSLNE92B00Y20130312.
  8. Denmark’s Strategy. Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands: Kingdom of Denmark Strategy for the Arctic 2011– 2020. (2011). Retrieved September 25, 2012 from http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/document-archive/category/12-arctic-strategies.
  9. Eðvarðsson Runar, I. (2007). Demographic changes, labor migration and EU-enlargement—relevance for the Nordic regions. Stockholm: Nordregio.Google Scholar
  10. Finland’s Strategy for the Arctic Region. (2010). Publication 8/2010. Helsinki: Prime Minister’s Office Publications.Google Scholar
  11. Finland’s Strategy for the Arctic Region 2013. Government resolution on 23 August 2013. (2013). Publication 16/2013. Retrieved from http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/document-archive/category/12-arctic-strategies.
  12. Finnsson, L. (2010, January 22). Greenland financial independence predicted by 2015. Ice News. Retrieved June 14, 2013 from http://www.icenews.is/index.php/2010/01/22/greenland-financial-independence-predicted-by-2015/.
  13. Greenland: Oil Fortune to Fund Independence. United Nations Regional Information Centre for Western Europe. Retrieved May 10, 2012 from http://www.unric.org/en/indigenous-people/27308-greenland-oil-fortune-to-fund-independence.
  14. Haykowski, M. (2011). Norwegia - dłuższe granice. November 26, 2011, Sztokholm/IAR/. http://blog.norway.com/2011/12/02/norway-is-longer-than-you-think/.
  15. Heininen L. (2007). Geopolitics of a ’melting’ North. Arctic Challenges, Journal of Nordregio, 4.Google Scholar
  16. Iceland’s Strategy. A parliamentary resolution on Iceland’s Arctic Policy. Retrieved May 15, 2012 from http://www.arctic-council.org/index.php/en/document-archive/category/12-arctic-strategies.
  17. Increased co-operation the way to sustainable development in the Arctic. Retrieved May 05, 2011 from www.norden.org.
  18. Jarocki, M. (2011). Polityka Federacji Rosyjskiej wobec Arktyki. FAE Policy Paper nr 23/2011. Warszawa: Fundacja Amicus Europae. Retrieved February 05, 2013 from http://fae.pl/wyniki-/policy-papers-nr-23/2011-polityka-federacji-rosyjskiej-wobec-arktyki.
  19. Jarocki, M. (2012). Polityka Norwegii wobec Arktyki. FAE Policy Paper nr 23/2012. Warszawa: Fundacja Amicus Europae. Retrieved February 05, 2013 from http://fae.pl/wyniki-/policy-papers-nr-23/2012-polityka-norwegii-wobec-arktyki.
  20. Jastrzembski, S. (2007). In an interview for NZZ Am Sonntag, May 13, 2007.Google Scholar
  21. Kavalov, B., Petrić, H., & Geogakaki, A. (2009). Liquefied natural gas for Europe —Some important issues for consideration. JRC Reference Reports, Report EUR 23818 EN. European Commission, Brussels 2009, p. 10.Google Scholar
  22. Ketels, Ch. (2008). Global pressure—Nordic solutions? In The Nordic globalization barometer 2008. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.Google Scholar
  23. Kijewski, T. (2009). Rywalizacja o surowce energetyczne w Arktyce. Bezpieczeństwo Narodowe (v. I–II, nr 9–10).Google Scholar
  24. Korejba, J. (2014). Russian strategy in the Arctic. Factors, Instruments, International Implications. In R.M. Czarny, R. Kubicki, A. Janowska & M. Tomala (Ed.). The Arctic and Nordic countries in the world of economy and politics. Kielce: Jan Kochanowski University.Google Scholar
  25. Kubiak, K. (2012). Interesy i spory państw w Arktyce w pierwszych dekadach XXI wieku. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Trio.Google Scholar
  26. Kublik, A. (2013, February 21). Rosja kusi złożami w Arktyce koncerny z Azji. Gazeta Wyborcza. Retrieved January 02, 2014 from http://wyborcza.biz/biznes/1,100896,13434887,Rosja_kusi_zlozami_w_Arktyce_koncerny_z_Azji.html#TRrelSST#ixzz2pFhGWu3x.
  27. Kublik, A. (2014). Bruksela ostrzega Gazprom. Gazeta Wyborcza, January 17, 2014.Google Scholar
  28. Młynarski, T. (2010). Arktyka – nieodkryty spichlerz energetyczny świata. Politeja 2010, nr 13.Google Scholar
  29. Młynarski, T. (2011). Bezpieczeństwo energetyczne w pierwszej dekadzie XXI wieku. Mozaika interesów i geostrategii. Kraków, p. 283.Google Scholar
  30. Noël, P. (2008). Beyond dependence: How to deal with Russian Gas. EU Council on Foreign Relations. Policy Brief. EU Council on Foreign Relations, at http://ecfr.eu/content/entry/russia_gas_policy_brief/ ].
  31. New Building Blocks In the North. (2009). The next step in the Government’s High North Strategy. Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Oslo.Google Scholar
  32. Norway’s Strategy. (2006). The Norwegian Government’s High North Strategy. Oslo: Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.Google Scholar
  33. Norwegia otwiera nafciarzom szerszy dostęp do Arktyki. (2013, June 20). Gazeta Wyborcza. Retrieved January 02, 2014 from http://wyborcza.biz/biznes/1,100896,14141307,Norwegia_otwiera_nafciarzom_szerszy_dostep_do_Arktyki.html#TRrelSST. www.regjeringen.no/nb/dep/ud/dok/rapporter_planer/planer/2009/nordstrategi_trinn2.html?id=548803. Retrieved May 10, 2013.
  34. Piaseczny, J. (2010). Spory o podział Arktyki, no. 14/2010, http://www.przeglad-tygodnik.pl/pl/artykul/spory-o-podzial-arktyki. Retrieved May 01, 2013.
  35. Rossijskaja Gazieta, June 27, 2007.Google Scholar
  36. Schep, M., & Traufetter, G. (2009). Russia Unveils Aggressive Arctic Plans. Spiegel, January 29, 2009. Retrieved September 10, 2011 from http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,604338,00.html.
  37. Spongenberg, H. (2011, June 23). Nordic countries get an international voice in the Arctic. Retrieved October 17, 2011 from http://www.Norden.org/en/analys-Norden/tema/the-fight-for-the-arctic/nordic-countries-get-an-international-voice-in-the-arctic.
  38. Sustainable Development in Finnish Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 01, 2012 from www.norden.org.
  39. Sweden’s strategy for the Arctic region. (2011). Retrieved April 03, 2012 from http://www.government.se/content/1/c6/16/78/59/3baa039d.pdf.
  40. Wallin, S. [the Finnish Minister for Nordic Cooperation]. (2008). Finland Promotes Nordic Policy of Environmental Protection. Highlights of The International Polar Year 2007–2008. Kobenhaven: Nordic Council of Ministers, p. 21.Google Scholar
  41. Werner, A. (2007, September 03). Rynek – rzadkie dobro współczesnego świata. Rzeczpospolita. http://archiwum.rp.pl/artykul/715830-Rynek—rzadkie-dobro-wspolczesnego-swiata.html.
  42. Werz, M. (2008). Zmiany klimatyczne i geopolityka. Heinrich BöllStiftung. http://www.pl.boell.org/alt/download_pl/Zmiany_klimatyczne_i_geopolityka.pdf.
  43. www.arctic-info.com. (2013, August 21). Rogozin: who is first to go to the Arctic will be a 21st century leader. http://www.arctic-info.com/News/Page/rogozin-who-is-first-to-go-to-the-arctic-will-be-a-21st-century-leader. Retrieved September 01, 2013.
  44. Zalkind, L.(2010). Local implications of housing reforms in the northern regions of Russia. . In G. Winther (Ed.), The political economy of northern regional development (Vol. 1).Google Scholar
  45. Zysk, K. (2010). Russia’s Arctic strategy: Ambitions and constraints. Joint Force Quarterly, 57(2). Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/doctrine/jfq/jfq-57.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Jan Kochanowski UniversityKielcePoland

Personalised recommendations