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Papillomavirus Replication

  • Sara P. CulletonEmail author
  • Elliot J. Androphy
  • Sriramana Kanginakudru
Chapter

Abstract

Papillomaviruses (PVs) are small, double-stranded, circular DNA viruses that infect mammals, birds, and reptiles. An understanding of these virus replicative cycles is largely derived from studies of bovine papillomavirus (BPV) and human papillomavirus (HPV). With an 8-kilobase (kb) genome encoding only eight major genes, PVs have a limited set of tools with which they can establish an infection. Hence, they depend on host factors to carry out their life cycle. In their preferred niche, keratinocytes, the replicative program of extensively studied HPV types is tightly linked to that of the host. These viruses are preferentially internalized in the basal layer, persist in superficially migrating cells, and manipulate cell cycle and differentiation to facilitate their own propagation. Although much progress has been achieved in understanding PV biology, the precise mechanisms governing the viral replicative cycle, as well as the alterations in the host that lead to cancer, remain incompletely understood. This chapter reviews basic PV biology, then examines in detail the host replication machinery, the different modes and stages of viral replication, and the molecular aspects of the intricate virus–host interplay which occurs during replication.

Keywords

Human papillomavirus Viral life cycle E1 E2 Virus–host interactions Replication Maintenance Amplification Genomic instability Cancer 

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara P. Culleton
    • 1
    Email author
  • Elliot J. Androphy
    • 2
  • Sriramana Kanginakudru
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Dermatology and Department of Microbiology and ImmunologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of DermatologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

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