Interactions in Affective Computing: Sharing a Haptic Experience Increases Calmness and Closeness

  • Norene KellyEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9169)


Our body representation and sense of self is constantly updated starting from the integration of different sensory inputs. Synchronous bodily stimulation has been used to manipulate sense of self, and can be applied to user experience design. This study manipulated multimodal stimulation to test factors potentially affecting mood and interpersonal closeness. The independent variables were: (1) the presence or absence of a haptic device (neck massager) on the participant; (2) the presentation of one of two videos, in which an actor expressed either energy or calmness while wearing the haptic device; and (3) the pre- and post-intervention time factor. The results showed a main effect for time for all dependent variables. A three-way interaction effect was evident for the measures of calmness and interpersonal closeness. The greatest reported increase in interpersonal closeness occurred in the haptic-energy video condition, an effect that was consistent with one of the study’s hypotheses.


Human computer interaction Haptics Affective computing Mood Interpersonal closeness Embodied cognition Social cognition User experience Therapeutic HCI Multisensory integration Self boundary 



The author thanks Dr. Stephen Gilbert for advising and supporting her Ph.D. studies, as well as Dr. Peter Martin, her advisor as she pursued her Masters (the source of this research). She is also grateful for the financial support provided by the Human Computer Interaction Graduate Program and the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at Iowa State University.


  1. 1.
    Semin, G.R., Cacioppo, J.T.: Grounding social cognition: synchronization, coordination, and co-regulation. In: Semin, G.R., Smith, E.R. (eds.) Embodied Grounding, pp. 119–147. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Garg, A.B.: Embodied cognition, human computer interaction, and application areas. Commun. Comput. Inf. Sci. 342, 369–374 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Holmes, N.P., Spence, C.: The body schema and multisensory representation(s) of peripersonal space. Cogn. Process. 5(2), 94–105 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mazzurega, M., Pavani, F., Paladino, M.P., Schubert, T.W.: Self-other bodily merging in the context of synchronous but arbitrary-related multisensory inputs. Exp. Brain Res. 213(2–3), 213–221 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baumeister, R.F. (ed.): The Self in Social Psychology. Taylor & Francis, Psychology Press, Philadelphia (1999)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schubert, T., Otten, S.: Overlap of self, ingroup and outgroup: pictorial measurement of self-categorization. Self Identity 4, 353–376 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Paladino, M., Mazzurega, M., Pavani, F., Schubert, T.W.: Synchronous multisensory stimulation blurs self-other boundaries. Psychol. Sci. 21(9), 1202–1207 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lakoff, G., Johnson, M.: Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. Basic Books, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Schubert, T.W., Koole, S.L.: The embodied self: making a fist enhances men’s power-related self-conceptions. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 45, 828–834 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stoytchev, A.: Some basic principles of developmental robotics. IEEE Trans. Auton. Ment. Dev. 1(2), 1–9 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wiltermuth, S.S., Heath, C.: Synchrony and cooperation. Psychol. Sci. 20(1), 1–5 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Semin, G.R., Smith, E.R.: Introducing embodied grounding. In: Semin, G.R., Smith, E.R. (eds.) Embodied Grounding, pp. 1–5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Preston, S.D., de Waal, F.B.M.: Empathy: its ultimate and proximate bases. Behav. Brain Sci. 25, 1–72 (2002)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J.T., Rapson, R.L.: Emotional Contagion. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1994)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wilhelm, P., Schoebi, D.: Assessing mood in daily life: structural validity, sensitivity to change, and reliability of a short-scale to measure three basic dimensions of mood. Eur. J. Psychol. Assess. 23(4), 258–267 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Steyer, R., Schwenkmezger, P., Notz, P., Eid, M.: Der mehrdimensionale Befindlichkeitsfragebogen. Handanweisung [The Multidimensional Mood Questionnaire (MDMQ)]. Hogrefe, Göttingen (1997)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aron, A., Aron, E.N., Smollan, D.: Inclusion of other in the self scale and the structure of interpersonal closeness. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 63(4), 596–612 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liviatan, I., Trope, Y., Liberman, N.: Interpersonal similarity as a social distance dimension: implications for perception of others’ actions. J. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 44, 1256–1269 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lynn, R.: Attention, Arousal, and the Orientation Reaction. Pergamon, Oxford (1966)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lacey, J.I., Kagan, J., Lacey, B.C., Moss, H.A.: The visceral level: situational determinants and behavioral correlates of autonomic response patterns. In: Knapp, P.H. (ed.) Expression of the Emotions in Man, pp. 161–196. International University Press, New York (1963)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Andreassi, J.L.: Psychophysiology: Human Behavior and Physiological Response. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc., Mahwah (2000)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cannon, W.B.: Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear, and Rage. Appleton, New York (1915)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Stern, R.M., Ray, W.J., Quigley, K.S.: Psychophysiological Recording. Oxford University Press, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lacey, J.I.: Somatic response patterning and stress: some revisions of activation theory. In: Appley, M.H., Trumbull, R. (eds.) Psychological Stress. Appleton Century Crofts, New York (1967)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
    Combatalade, D.C.: Basics of Heart Rate Variability Applied to Psychophysiology. Thought Technology Ltd., Montreal (2010)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schachter, S.: The interaction of cognitive and physiological determinants of emotional state. In: Berkowitz, L. (ed.) Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 1, pp. 49–80. Academic Press, New York (1964)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zillmann, D.: Television viewing and physiological arousal. In: Bryant, J., Zillmann, D. (eds.) Responding to the Screen: Reception and Reaction Processes, pp. 103–134. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ (1991)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Walters, J., Apter, M.J., Svebak, S.: Color preference, arousal, and the theory of psychological reversals. Motiv. Emot. 6(3), 193–215 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wexner, L.B.: The degree to which colors (Hues) are associated with mood-tones. J. Appl. Psychol. 38(6), 432–435 (1954)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wortman, J., Wood, D.: The personality traits of liked people. J. Res. Pers. 45, 519–528 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Waugh, C.E., Fredrickson, B.L.: Nice to know you: positive emotions, self-other overlap, and complex understanding in the formation of a new relationship. J. Posit. Psychol. 1(2), 93–106 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    van Baaren, R.B., Fockenberg, D.A., Holland, R.W., Janssen, L., van Knippenberg, A.: The moody chameleon: the effect of mood on non-conscious mimcry. Soc. Cognit. 24(4), 426–437 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Winkielman, P., Niedenthal, P.M., Oberman, L.M.: Embodied perspective on emotion-cognition interactions. In: Pineda, J.A. (ed.) Mirror Neuron Systems, pp. 235–257. Humana Press, New York (2009)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hook, A.: A cry for more tech at CHI! Interactions XIX.2, 10–11 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Vaucelle, C., Bonanni, L., Ishii, H.: Design of haptic interfaces for therapy. In: CHI 2009 Learning Challenges, pp. 467–470, Boston, MA, 6 April 2009Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Iowa State UniversityAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations