User Study on 3D Multitouch Interaction (3DMi) and Gaze on Surface Computing

  • Eugene Ch’ngEmail author
  • Neil Cooke
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9187)


On a multitouch table, user’s interactions with 3D virtual representations of real objects should be influenced by task and their perceived physical characteristics. This article explores the development and user study of an interactive 3D application that allows users to explore virtual heritage objects on a surface device. To-date, most multitouch has focused on 2D or 2.5D systems. A user-study is reported where we analyse their multimodal behaviour – specifically how they interact on a surface device with objects that have similar properties to physical versions and the users’ associated gaze patterns with touch. The study reveals that gaze characteristics are different according to their interaction intention in terms of position and duration of visual attention. We discovered that virtual objects afford the perception of haptic attributes ascribed to their equivalent physical objects, and that differences in the summary statistics of gaze showed consistent characteristics between people and differences between natural and task based activities. An awareness of user behaviours using natural gestures can inform the design of interactive 3D applications which complements the user’s model of past experience with physical objects and with GUI interaction.


Interactive 3D Multitouch Surface computing Digital heritage Gaze tracking 



This work was supported by The International Doctoral Innovation Centre (IDIC) scholarship scheme at the University of Nottingham Ningbo China. We also greatly acknowledge the support from Ningbo Education Bureau, Ningbo Science and Technology Bureau, China’s MoST and The University of Nottingham. The project is partially supported by NBSTB Project 2012B10055.


  1. 1.
    Blau, I., Caspi, A.: What type of collaboration helps? psychological ownership, perceived learning and outcome quality of collaboration. In: Proceedings of the Chais Conference on Instructional Technologies Research 2009: Learning in the Technological era (Raanana, 2009), pp. 48–55 (2009)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bowman, D.A.: Interaction techniques for common tasks in immersive virtual environments. Citeseer (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ch’ng, E.: New ways of accessing information spaces using 3D multitouch tables. In: Proceedings of the Art, Design and Virtual Worlds Conference, Cyberworlds 2012, 25–27 September 2012, Darmstadt, Germany (2012)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ch’ng, E.: The Mirror Between Two Worlds: 3D Surface Computing Interaction for Digital Objects and Environments Digital Media and Technologies for Virtual Artistic Spaces. IGI Global, USA (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ciocca, G., et al.: Browsing museum image collections on a multi-touch table. Inf. Syst. 37(2), 169–182 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Correia, N., et al.: A multi-touch tabletop for robust multimedia interaction in museums. In: ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dekeyser, S., Watson, R.: Extending Google Docs to Collaborate on Researchpapers. The University of Southern Queensland, Australia (2006)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Eseryel, D., et al.: Review of computer-supported collaborative work systems. Edu. Technol. Soc. 5(2), 1–8 (2002)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    North, C., Dwyer, T., Lee, B., Fisher, D., Isenberg, P., Robertson, G., Inkpen, K.: Understanding multi-touch manipulation for surface computing. In: Gross, T., Gulliksen, J., Kotzé, P., Oestreicher, L., Palanque, P., Prates, R.O., Winckler, M. (eds.) INTERACT 2009. LNCS, vol. 5727, pp. 236–249. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Peltonen, P., et al.: It’s Mine, Don’t Touch!: interactions at a large multi-touch display in a city centre. In: Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM (2008)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ryall, K., et al.: Experiences with and observations of direct-touch tabletops. In: Proceedings of the First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems, TABLETOP 2006 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Wobbrock, J.O., et al.: User-defined gestures for surface computing. In: Proceedings of the 27th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Computer Science, International Doctoral Innovation CentreUniversity of Nottingham Ningbo ChinaNingboChina
  2. 2.Department of Electronic Electrical and Computer EngineeringUniversity of BirminghamEdgbastonUK

Personalised recommendations