Advertisement

The Invisible User: Women in DUXU

  • Javed Anjum SheikhEmail author
  • Aneela Abbas
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9187)

Abstract

“Gender digital divide” is a demoralizing issue with far reaching consequences, debarring women and girls relishing equivalent approach to ICTs usage as men and boys. Numerous reasons can be marked out behindhand this discriminative technology adaptation, e.g. societal blockades, technophobia and techno incompetency. Nonetheless, ICTs have opened new horizons for women, eventually economically enabling and empowering them. This study investigates the challenges faced by women in design and proposes the strategies to bridge the gender gap to ensure an obliging technology for tech deprived women in developing countries like Pakistan.

Keywords

DUXU User experience Design Usability HCI Women computer interaction 

References

  1. 1.
    Agosto, D.: Girls and gaming: A summary of the research with implications for practice. http://tinyurl.com/mnsho5. Accessed 19 July 2009
  2. 2.
    Arun, S., Arun, T.: ICTs, gender and development: women in software production in Kerala. J. Int. Dev. 14(1), 39–50 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bacon, C.: Mind the gap: the gender divide in technology firms. Grovelands, 10 September 2014. http://www.grovelands.co.uk/mind-the-gap-the-gender-divide-in-technology-firms/. Accessed 28 November 2014
  4. 4.
    Balka, E.: Gender and skill in human computer interaction. In: Conference Companion on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 93–94. ACM (1996)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bardzell, J.: Interaction criticism and aesthetics. In: Proceedings of the CHI 2009, pp. 2357–2366. ACM Press (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bardzell, S.: Feminist HCI: Taking stock and outlining an agenda for design. In: SIGCHI Conference Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1301–1310 (2010)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bardzell, S., Bardzell, J.: Towards a feminist HCI methodology: Social science, feminism, and HCI. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2011, pp. 675–684. ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bell, G., Dourish, P.: Yesterday’s tomorrows: Notes on ubiquitous computing’s dominant vision. Pers. Ubiquitous Comput. (2006)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bell, G., Blythe, M., Sengers, P.: Making by making strange: Defamilarization and the design of domestic technology. TOCHI 12(2), 149–173 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Berg, A.: A gendered socio-technical construction: The smart house. In: MacKenzie, D., Wajcman, J. (eds.) The Social Shaping of Technology, pp. 301–313. Open University Press, United Kingdom (1999)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Best, M.L., Maier, S.G.: Gender, culture and ICT use in rural South India. Gend. Technol. Dev. 11(2), 137–155 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bimber, B.: Measuring the gender gap on the internet. Soc. Sci. Q. 81(3), 868–876 (2000)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Blevis, E.: Sustainable interaction design: Invention & disposal, renewal & reuse. In: Proceedings of CHI 2007, pp. 503–512. ACM Press (2007)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bødker, S., Greenbaum, J.: A feeling for systems development work. In: Tijdens, K., et al (eds.) Women, Work and Computerization. North Holland (1988)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Boiarov, S.: Informe sobre legislación y normativa vinculada al teletrabajo en América Latina y el Caribe, United Nations ECLAC, Information Society Programme (2007). http://www.cepal.org/socinfo/noticias/noticias/2/32222/GdT_eLAC_meta_5.pdf. Accessed 2 March 2015
  16. 16.
    Bratteteig, T.: Bringing gender issues to technology design. In: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, pp. 91–105 (2002)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Burnett, M.M., Beckwith, L., Wiedenbeck, S., Fleming, S.D., Cao, J., Park, T.H., Rector, K.: Gender pluralism in problem-solving software. Interact. Comput. 23(5), 450–460 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Byrne, C., Cassano, J.: The Loneliness of the Female Coder. Fast Company and Inc., 11 September 2013. http://www.fastcolabs.com/3008216/tracking/minding-gap-how-your-company-can-woo-female-coders. Accessed 28 November 2014
  19. 19.
    Cassell, J.: Genderizing HCI. In: Jacko, J., Sears, A. (eds.) The Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, pp. 402–411. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cassell, J., Jenkins, H.: Chess for girls: Feminism and computer game. In: Cassell, J.A., Jenkins, H. (eds.) From Barbie to Mortal Kombat: Gender and ComputerGames. The MIT Press, Cambridge, pp. 2–45, 199Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cockburn, C.: The circuit of technology: Gender, identity, and power. In: Silverstone, R., Hirsch, E. (eds.) Consuming Technologies: Media and Information in Domestic Spaces, pp. 32–47. Routledge, London (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cowan, R.: More Work for Mother: The Ironies of Household Technology from the Open Hearth to the Microwave. Basic Books, New York (1983)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davis, S.: Empowering women weavers? the internet in rural morocco. Inf. Technol. Int. Dev. Spec. Issue Women’s Empowerment Inf. Soc. 4(2), 17–23 (2007)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    De Angeli, A., Bianchi-Berthouze, N.: Gender and interaction: Real and virtual women in a male world. In: AVI 2006 Workshop (2006)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dholakia, R.R., Dholakia, N., Pedersen, B.: Putting a byte in the gender gap. Am. Demographics 16(12), 20–21 (1994)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dickey, M.D.: Girl gamers: the controversy of girl games and the relevance of female-oriented game design for instructional design. British J. Educ. Technol. 37(5), 785–793 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dishman, L.: Closing the gender divide: why confidence and leaning in alone won’t cut it. Fast Company & Inc., 27 May 2014. http://www.fastcompany.com/3031021/bottom-line/closing-the-gender-divide-why-confidence-and-leaning-in-alone-wontcut-it. Accessed 28 November 2014
  28. 28.
    Duncker, E., Sheikh, J.A., Fields, B.: From global terminology to local terminology: a review on cross-cultural interface design solutions. In: Rau, P. (ed.) CCD/HCII 2013, Part I. LNCS, vol. 8023, pp. 197–207. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Duncker, E.: Cross-cultural usability of the library metaphor. Paper presented at the JCDL 2002, Portland, Oregon, pp. 223–230 (2002)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fallows, D.: How Women and Men Use the Internet, Pew Internet and American Life Project (2005). http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2005/How-Women-and-Men-Use-the-Internet.aspx. Accessed 4 March 2015
  31. 31.
    Faulkner, W.: The technology question in feminism: A view from feminist technology studies. Women’s Stud. Inter’l Forum 24(1), 79–95 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gervais-Bazin, V.: Fixing the gender gap in tech: sharing best practices. Alcatel-Lucent (2014). http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/blog/2014/fixing-gender-gap-tech-sharing-best-practices. Accessed 29 November 2014
  33. 33.
    Gerrade, S., Dickinson, J.: Women’s working wardrobes: a study using card sorts. Expert Syst. 22(3), 108–114 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gill, K., Brooks, K., McDougall, J., Patel, P., Kes, A.: Bridging the gender divide: how technology can advance women economically. In: The International Centre for Research on Women (ICRW) (2010). Accessed 2 March 2015Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gorriz, C.M., Medina, C.: Engaging girls computers software games. Commun. ACM 43(1), 42–49 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Graner-Ray, S.: Gender-Inclusive Game Design: Expanding the Market. Charles River Media, Hingham (2003)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Green, E., Owen, J., Pain, D.: Gendered by Design? Information Technology and Office Systems. Taylor and Francis, London (1993)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hafkin, N., Huyer, S.: Women and Gender in ICT Statistics and Indicators for Development. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2008). Volume 4, Number 2, pp. 25–41 (2007)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Haraway, D.: A cyborg manifesto: Science, technology, and socialist feminism in the late twentieth century. In: Simians, Cyborgs, and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, pp. 149–181. Routledge, New York (1991)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hartmann, T., Klimmt, C.: Gender and computer games: Exploring females’ dislikes. J. Comput.- Mediated Commun. 11(4), 910–941 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Herring, S.C., Ogan, C., Ahuja, M., Robinson, J.C.: Gender and the culture of computing in applied IT education. In: Trauth, E. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Gender and Information Technology. Information Science Publishing, Hershey (2006)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hilbert, M.: Digital gender divide or technologically empowered women in developing countries? A typical case of lies, damned lies, and statistics. Women’s Stud. Int. Forum 34(6), 479–489 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hubbard, R.: Science, facts, and feminism. In: Wyer, M., Barbercheck, M., Giesman, D., Öztürk, H., Wayne, M. (eds.) Women, Science, and Technology, pp. 153–160. Routledge, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Huhman, H.R.: STEM fields and the gender gap: where are the women? Forbes. 20 June 2012. http://www.forbes.com/sites/work-in-progress/2012/06/20/stem-fields-and-the-gender-gap-where-are-the-women/. Accessed 28 November 2014
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
    Jenny, J.: Closing the Gender Gap. Civil Eng. (08857024) 80(7), 60–63 (2010)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kannabiran, G.: Gender and the Design of Technology - A Critical Analysis. UCLA Center for the Study of Women (2012). http://escholarship.org/uc/item/0sf3p93j
  48. 48.
    Kim, Q.: Why aren’t more women on tech boards? Marketplace, 26 December 2013. http://www.marketplace.org/topics/tech/twitter-fallout-why-arent-more-women-tech-boards. Accessed 29 November 2014
  49. 49.
    Kopytoff, V.: Tech companies on edge of innovation continue to leave women behind. Aljazeera America, 24 December 2013. http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2013/12/24/tech-companies-onedgeofinnovationcontinuetoleavewomenbehind.html. Accessed 29 November 2014
  50. 50.
    Liebert, M.A.: Race, gender, and information technology use: the new digital divide. Cyber Psychol. Behav. 11(4), 437–442 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lohan, M., Faulknet, W.: Masculinities and technologies: some introductory remarks. Men Masculinities 6(4), 319–329 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Longino, H.: Can there be a feminist science? In: Wyer, M., Barbercheck, M., Giesman, D., Öztürk, H., Wayne, M. (eds.) Women, Science, and Technology, pp. 216–222. Routledge, New York (2001)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Marcus, A.: Human communications issues in advanced UIs. Commun. ACM 36(3), 101–108 (1993)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    McCarthy, J., Wright, P.: Technology as Experience. The MIT Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mindiola, J.: Gender Disparities in the Design Field. Smashing Magazine, 12 November 2010. http://www.smashingmagazine.com/2010/11/12/gender-disparities-in-the-design-field/. Accessed 29 November 2014
  56. 56.
    Moss, G., Colman, A.M.: Choices and preferences: experiments on gender differences. J. Brand Manage. 9(2), 89–98 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ng, C., Mitter, M.S.: Gender and the Digital Economy: Perspectives from the Developing World. SAGE Publications, London (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Norris, P.: Digital Divide: Civic Engagement, Information, Poverty, and the Internet Worldwide. Cambridge University Press, New York (2006)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Park, S.: Concentration of internet usage and its relation to exposure to negative content: Does the gender gap differ among adults and adolescents? Women’s Stud. Int. Forum 32(2), 98–107 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Parmar, B.: The Technological Gender Divide. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/belinda-parmar/tech-genderdivide_b_924314.html. Accessed 2 March 2015
  61. 61.
    Puente, S.N.: From cyber feminism to techno feminism: From an essentialist perspective to social cyber feminism in certain feminist practices in Spain. Women’s Stud. Int. Forum 31(6), 434–440 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rode, J., Bødker, S.: Considering gender in ECSCW. In: ECSCW 2009 Workshop 2009 (2009)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Sheikh, J.A., Fields, B., Duncker, E.: Cultural based e-Health information system. Presentation at the Health Libraries Group Conference 2010, July 19-20. CILIP, Salford Quays (2010)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sheikh, J.A., Fields, B., Duncker, E.: Cultural representation by Card Sorting. Ergonomics for All: Celebrating PPCOE’s 20 years of Excellence. Selected Papers of the Pan-Pacific Conference on Ergonomics, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, November 7–10, 2010, pp. 215–220. CRC Press (2011)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sheikh, J.A., Fields, B., Duncker, E.: Cultural Representation for Interactive Information system. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on the Current Trends in Information Technology, Dubai (2009)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sheikh, J.A., Fields, B., Duncker, E.: Cultural representation for multi-culture interaction design. In: Aykin, N. (ed.) IDGD 2009. LNCS, vol. 5623, pp. 99–107. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sheikh, J.A., Fields, B., Duncker, E.: Multi-Culture interaction design. advances in cross-cultural decision making, pp. 406–415. CRC Press (2010)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sheikh, J.A., Fields, B., Duncker, E.: The cultural integration of knowledge management into interactive design. In: Smith, M.J., Salvendy, G. (eds.) HCII 2011, Part I. LNCS, vol. 6771, pp. 48–57. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Taylor, A., Swan, L.: Artful systems in the home. In: Proceedings of CHI 2005, pp. 641–650 (2005)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Teasley, B., Leventhal, L., Blumenthal, B., Instone, K., Daryl, S.: Cultural diversity in user interface design: Are intuitions enough? SIGCHI Bull. 26(1), 36–40 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    The Global Gender Gap Report 2014. http://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2014. Accessed 4 March 2015
  72. 72.
    Turkle, S.: Computational reticence: Why women fear the intimate machine. In: Kramarae, C. (ed.) Technology and Women’s Voices, pp. 41–61 (1988)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Varank, I.: Effectiveness of quantitative skills, qualitative skills, and gender in determining computer skills and attitudes: a causal analysis. Clearing House 81(2), 71–80 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Venkatesh, V., Morris, M.G.: Why don’t men ever stop to ask for directions? gender, social influence, and their role in technology acceptance and usage behavior. MIS Q. 24(1), 115–139 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Von Hellens, A.L., Nielsen, S., Kaylene, C., Beekhuyze, J.: Conceptualizing gender and IT: Australians taking action in Germany (2005)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wajcman, J.: Feminism Confronts Technology. Penn State University Press, University Park, PA (1991)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Whitney, T.: Why tech’s gender gap isn’t just a pay gap. FORTUNE, 24 November 2014. http://fortune.com/2014/11/24/why-techs-gender-gap-isnt-just-a-pay-gap/. Accessed 28 November 2014
  78. 78.
    World Internet international Report 2009, USC Annenberg School Center for the Digital Future. http://store.digitalcenter.org/world-internet-report.html. Accessed 18 August 2009

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LahoreGujratPakistan
  2. 2.University of GujratGujratPakistan

Personalised recommendations