An Exploratory Study of Website Localization Strategies: The Effect of Exogenous Factors

  • Tailai WuEmail author
  • Chih-Hung Peng
  • Yani Shi
  • Choon Ling Sia
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9191)


This paper explores the relationship between website localization and their exogenous factors. Three exogenous factors are studied: online transaction availability, product types and history length. Based on the previous studies, this paper distinguishes website localization design strategies from website localization degree. Through a content analysis of Fortune 1000 companies’ websites, this paper finds that website localization strategies are positively related to website localization degree and that product types positively associate with website localization degree. Besides, all the exogenous factors are relevant to some specfic website localization strategies.


Website localization Exogenous factors Strategies Content analysis 


  1. Alderson, W.: Dynamic Marketing Behavior: A Functionalist Theory of Marketing. Richard D. Irwin Inc., Homewood (1965)Google Scholar
  2. Baack, D.W., Singh, N.: Culture and web communications. J. Bus. Res. 60(3), 181–188 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belanger, F., Hiller, J.S., Smith, W.J.: Trustworthiness in electronic commerce: the role of privacy, security, and site attributes. J. Strateg. Inf. Syst. 11(3), 245–270 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boeker, W.: Strategic change: the effects of founding and history. Acad. Manag. J. 32(3), 489–515 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cavusgil, S.T., Zou, S., Naidu, G.M.: Product and promotion adaptation in export ventures: an empirical investigation. J. Int. Bus. Stud. 24(3), 479–506 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chaffee, E.: Three models of strategy. Acad. Manag. Rev. 10(1), 89–98 (1985)Google Scholar
  7. Chen, J.V., Ross, W.H., Yen, D.C., Akhapon, L.: The effect of types of banner ad, web localization, and customer involvement on internet users’ attitudes. CyberPsychol. Behav. 12(1), 71–73 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cyr, D., Bonanni, C., Bowes, J., Ilsever, J.: Beyond trust: web site design preferences across cultures. J. Global Inf. Manag. 13(4), 25–54 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gefen, D., Karahanna, E., Straub, D.: Trust and tam in online shopping: an integrated model. MIS Q. 27(1), 51–90 (2003)Google Scholar
  10. Gibb, F., Matthaiakis, I.: A framework for assessing web site localisation. Electron. Libr. 25(6), 664–678 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hall, E.T.: Beyond Culture. Doubleday, Garden City (1976)Google Scholar
  12. Hofstede, G.: Culture’s Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Sage, Beverly Hills (1980)Google Scholar
  13. Jain, S.C.: Standardization of international marketing strategy: some research hypotheses. J. Mark. 53(1), 70–79 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kassarjian, H.H.: Content analysis in consumer research. J. Consum. Res. 4(1), 8–18 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kramer, R.M., Brewer, M.B., Hanna, B.A.: Collective trust and collective action. In: Tyler, T.R. (ed.) Trust in Organizations: Frontiers of Theory and Research, pp. 357–389. SAGE Publications, Thousand Oaks (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lages, L.F., Abrantes, J.L., Lages, C.R.: The stratadapt scale: a measure of marketing strategy adaptation to international business markets. Int. Mark. Rev. 25(5), 584–600 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee, L., Ward, C.: Ethnicity, idiocentrism-allocentrism, and intergroup attitudes1. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol. 28(2), 109–123 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Malhotra, I.B.B.N.K.: Marketing management bases for international market segmentation: an alternate look at the standardization/customization debate. Int. Mark. Rev. 10(1), 19–44 (1993)MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  19. Mayer, R.C., Davis, J.H., Schoorman, F.D.: An Integrative Model of Organizational Trust. Acadamy Management Review 20(3), 709–734 (1995)Google Scholar
  20. Miglani, J.: Forrester Research World Online Population Forecast, 2012 to 2017 (Global). Forrester Research, Cambridge (2012)Google Scholar
  21. Neuendorf, K.A.: The Content Analysis Guidebook. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (2002)Google Scholar
  22. Nielsen, : Over 875 Million Consumers Have Shopped Online. The Nielsen Company, New York (2008)Google Scholar
  23. Rueter, T.: Global e-commerce will increase 22 % this year (2014). Accessed 9 March 2015
  24. Schwartz, S.H.: Beyond individualism/collectivism: new cultural dimensions of values. In: Kim, U., Triandis, H.C., Kagitcibasi, C., Choi, S.-C., Yoon, G. (eds.) Individualism and Collectivism: Theory, Method, and Applications, pp. 85–119. Sage Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks (1994)Google Scholar
  25. Shneor, R.: Influences of culture, geography and infrastructure on website localization decisions. Int. J. Cross Cult. Manag. 19(3), 352–374 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Singer, D.D., Baradwaj, B., Avery, A.E.: Web localization in international online banking. J. Internet Bus. 4, 1–23 (2007)Google Scholar
  27. Singh, N.: Localization strategies for global e-Business. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2012)Google Scholar
  28. Singh, N., Baack, D.W., Bott, J.P.: Are multinationals localizing their web sites? the link between managerial attitudes and mne web content. Int. J. Commer. Manag. 20(3), 258–267 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Singh, N., Baack, D.W., Pereira, A., Baack, D.: Culturally customizing websites for US Hispanic online consumers. J. Advertising Res. 48(2), 224–234 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Singh, N., Furrer, O., Ostinelli, M.: To Localize or to Standardize on the Web: Empirical Evidence from Italy, India, Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland. Multinatl. Bus. Rev. 12(1), 69–88 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Singh, N., Matsuo, H.: Measuring cultural adaptation on the web: a content analytic study of us and japanese web sites. J. Bus. Res. 57(8), 864–872 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Singh, N., Pereira, A.: The Culturally Customized Web Site. Routledge, Burlington (2005)Google Scholar
  33. Singh, N., Toy, D.R., Wright, L.K.: A diagnostic framework for measuring web-site localization. Thunderbird Int. Bus. Rev. 51(3), 281–295 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Solberg, C.A.: Standardization or adaptation of the international marketing mix: the role of the local subsidiary/representative. J. Int. Mark. 8(1), 78–98 (2000)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Solberg, C.A.: The perennial issue of adaptation or standardization of international marketing communication: organizational contingencies and performance. J. Int. Mark. 10(3), 1–21 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Szymanski, D.M., Bharadwaj, S.G., Varadarajan, P.R.: Standardization versus adaptation of international marketing strategy: an empirical investigation. J. Mark. 57(4), 1–17 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tixier, M.: Globalization and localization of contents: evolution of major internet sites across sectors of industry. Thunderbird Int. Bus. Rev. 47(1), 15–48 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vyncke, F., Brengman, M.: Are culturally congruent websites more effective? an overview of a decade of empirical evidence. J. Electron. Commer. Res. 11(1), 14–29 (2010)Google Scholar
  39. Wu, T., Sia, C. L., Shi, Y., Peng, C.-H., Lu, Y.: An exploration study of website localization strategies: a perspective from fortune 1000 (2015)Google Scholar
  40. Yip, G.S.: Patterns and determinants of global marketing. J. Mark. Manag. 13(1–3), 153–164 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tailai Wu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chih-Hung Peng
    • 1
  • Yani Shi
    • 1
  • Choon Ling Sia
    • 1
  1. 1.City University of Hong KongKowloon TongChina

Personalised recommendations