Semantic Research of Military Icons Based on Behavioral Experiments and Eye-Tracking Experiments

  • Xiao Jiao Chen
  • Chengqi XueEmail author
  • Yafeng Niu
  • Haiyan Wang
  • Jing Zhang
  • Jiang Shao
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9186)


As a type of symbol, there are four dimensions in icons’ symbolic interpretation, namely semantic, syntactic, contextual and pragmatic dimension. Among those dimensions, semantic dimension is the most important one in user’s cognitive analysis. Based on the representation of semantics, icons can be classified into four types, namely function-metaphor, operation-metaphor, object-metaphor and meaning-metaphor icon. Here we conducted behavioral experiment and eye-tracking experiment to evaluate those four types of icons selected from military aeronautical system. The behavioral experiment showed that subjects have lowest reaction time to function-metaphor icons and highest accuracy to identify object-metaphor icons. The eye-tracking system showed that subjects have the most fixations when searching for object-metaphor icons and the least fixations when searching for function-metaphor icons. Our research is the first endeavor into the investigation of human’s response to different types of icons in the military systems and thus provided novel and valuable guidance to the design of icons in those systems.


Aeronautical system Icons Semantics Behavioral experiment Eye-tracking experiment 



This paper is supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 71271053, 71471037), Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (No. 20135169016) and Scientific Innovation Research of College Graduates in Jiangsu Province (No. CXLX13_082).


  1. 1.
    Zhou, Y.X., Luo, S.J., Chen, G.C.: Design semiotics based icon design. J. Comput. Aided Des. Comput. Graph. 24, 1319–1328 (2012)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wang, H.Y., Bian, T., Xue, C.Q.: Experimental evaluation of fighter’s interface layout based on eye tracking. Electro – Mech. Eng. 27, 50–53 (2011)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Farzan, R., Brusilovsky, P.: Social navigation support for information seeking: if you build it, will they come? In: Houben, G.-J., McCalla, G., Pianesi, F., Zancanaro, M. (eds.) UMAP 2009. LNCS, vol. 5535, pp. 66–77. Springer, Heidelberg (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kaminerer, Y., Gerjets, P.: How the Interface design influences users’spontaneous trustworthinessevaluations of web search results:comparing a list and a grid interface. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Eye-Tracking Research d-Applications, pp. 299–306. ACM (2010)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fang, X., Holsapple, C.W.: Toward a knowledge acquisition framework for web site design. In: Proceedings of the Americas Conference on Information Systems, Long Beach, pp. 10–13 (2000)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lindberg, T., Risto, N.: The effect of icon spacing and size on the speed of icon processing in the human visual system. Displays 24, 111–120 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang, K.C.: Effects of computer icons and figure/background area ratios and color combinations on visual search performance on an LCD monitor. Display 29, 237–242 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gong, Y., Yang, Y., Zhang, S.Y., Qian, X.F.: Event-related potential study on concretness effects to icon comprehension. J. Zhejiang Univ. (Eng. Sci.) 47, 1000–1005 (2013)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luo, S.J., Zhu, S.S., Sun, S.Q.: Case study of product conceptual design based on integrated knowledge. J. Comput. Aided Des. Comput. Graph. 16, 261–266 (2004)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiao Jiao Chen
    • 1
  • Chengqi Xue
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yafeng Niu
    • 1
  • Haiyan Wang
    • 1
  • Jing Zhang
    • 1
  • Jiang Shao
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringSoutheast UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations