Training in Robotic Urologic Surgery

  • Michael D. Weintraub
  • Steven V. Kheyfets
  • Chandru P. SundaramEmail author


Multiple modalities exist for training urologic surgeons in robotic surgery. These include dry and wet lab exercises, virtual reality and augmented reality simulators and animal and cadaver models. The learning curve associated with various robotic surgical procedures is variable, and training curricula aim to help novice surgeons most effectively overcome the steep part of the curve. While a standardized training protocol or credentialing process does not currently exist, multiple innovative training curricula have been developed with the intent of creating a comprehensive and effective learning environment in which to master the skills necessary for performing robotic procedures, and are explored in this chapter.


Robotic Training Simulators Virtual reality Augmented reality Curricula 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael D. Weintraub
    • 1
  • Steven V. Kheyfets
    • 1
  • Chandru P. Sundaram
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of UrologyIndiana University School of MedicineIndianapolisUSA

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