Designing Pedagogical Agents to Evoke Emotional States in Online Tutoring Investigating the Influence of Animated Characters
The affective or emotional state of the learner is known to motivate learning, and this study specifically investigated the role of pedagogical agents with animated characteristics in an online tutoring task. Previous studies indicated that sensitivity to emotion typically varies depending on the gender of the learner and the gender of the teacher; therefore, we investigated how each type of emotion is influenced by the gender of the characters. We conducted three experiments with a total of 414 Japanese students. We found that both male and female learners felt more positive toward animated characters of the same gender, and the effects became stronger with childlike characteristics, such as big eyes. We conclude that deformed characters could be incorporated into designs of web-based tutoring systems for more effective teaching.
KeywordsWeb-based tutoring Embodied agents Affective learning Gender
This work was supported in part by the 2012 KDDI Foundation Research Grant Program, and the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (KAKENHI), and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology, Japan (MEXTGrant), Grant No. 25870910.
- 1.Baylor, A.L., Kim, Y.: Simulating instructional roles through pedagogical agents. Int. J. Artif. Intell. Educ. 15(1), 95–115 (2005)Google Scholar
- 2.Baylor, A.L., Ryu, J.: The API (Agent Persona Instrument) for assessing pedagogical agent persona. In: Lassner, D., McNaught, C. (eds.) Procedings of the World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications, pp. 448–451 (2003)Google Scholar
- 4.Date, T., Kadomaru, T. In: Matsushita, D., Bobby, D. (eds.) How to Draw Moe Characters, Eye & Body, Japan (2010) (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- 6.Hayashi, Y., Huang, H.-H., Kryssanov, V.V., Urao, A., Miwa, K., Ogawa, H.: Source orientation in communication with a conversational agent. In: Vilhjálmsson, H.H., Kopp, S., Marsella, S., Thórisson, K.R. (eds.) IVA 2011. LNCS, vol. 6895, pp. 451–452. Springer, Heidelberg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Hayashi, Y.: Pedagogical conversational agents for supporting collaborative learning: effects of communication channels. In: Proeedings of the. CHI 2013 Works-in-Progress, pp. 655–660 (2013)Google Scholar
- 9.Hayashi, Y.: Learner-support agents for collaborative interaction: a study on affect and communication channels. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, pp. 232–239 (2013)Google Scholar
- 15.Lorenz, K.: Die Angeborenen formenmoglicher erfahrung innate forms of potential experiments. Zeitschrift fur Tier-psychology 5, 234–409 (1943)Google Scholar
- 17.Mori, M.: The uncanny valley (Mac Dorman, K.F., Kageki, N., trans.). IEEE Rob. Autom. Mag. 19(2), 98–100 (1970/2012)Google Scholar