Molecular Profiles and the “Indeterminate” Thyroid Nodule

  • Alireza Najafian
  • Aarti Mathur
  • Martha A. ZeigerEmail author


Although fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy is the most accurate and reliable diagnostic test available for the evaluation of a thyroid nodule, 20–30 % of FNA results are indeterminate or suspicious. In order to improve upon the diagnostic accuracy of FNA, several ancillary molecular tests have emerged to further refine the diagnostic role of FNA biopsy and improve the accuracy of preoperative diagnosis of indeterminate thyroid lesions. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in the investigation of these molecular markers, and promising findings have been reported. However, because of the complexity of surgical decision-making processes, the clinical usefulness and impact of these markers remain unclear. This chapter will review the efficacy and potential clinical utility of these molecular markers in preoperative diagnosis of an indeterminate thyroid nodule.


Indeterminate thyroid nodule Suspicious thyroid nodule Molecular marker Fine-needle aspiration FNA Thyroid cancer 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza Najafian
    • 1
  • Aarti Mathur
    • 1
  • Martha A. Zeiger
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Endocrine Surgery, Department of SurgeryThe Johns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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