Advertisement

MEMS Technologies for Energy Harvesting

  • Manuel Domínguez-Pumar
  • Joan Pons-Nin
  • Juan A. Chávez-Domínguez
Chapter

Abstract

The objective of this chapter is to introduce the technology of Microelectromechanical Systems, MEMS, and their application to emerging energy harvesting devices. The chapter begins with a general introduction to the most common MEMS fabrication processes. This is followed with a survey of design mechanisms implemented in MEMS energy harvesters to provide nonlinear mechanical actuations. Mechanisms to produce bistable potential will be studied, such as introducing fixed magnets, buckling of beams or using slightly slanted clamped-clamped beams. Other nonlinear mechanisms are studied such as impact energy transfer, or the design of nonlinear springs. Finally, due to their importance in the field of MEMS and their application to energy harvesters, an introduction to actuation using piezoelectric materials is given. Examples of energy harvesters found in the literature using this actuation principle are also presented.

Keywords

Piezoelectric Material Energy Harvester Piezoelectric Layer Proof Mass Nonlinear Spring 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Liu, C. (2012). Foundations of MEMS (2nd ed.). Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ghodssi, R., & Lin, P. (2012). MEMS materials and processes handbook. Springer.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Laermer, F., & Schilp, A. (1996). Method for anisotropic plasma etching of substrates. US Patent 5,498,312.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Laermer, F., & Schilp, A. (2003). Method of anisotropic etching of silicon. US Patent 6,531,068.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chen, K. S., Ayon, A. A., Zhang, X., & Spearing, S. M. (2002). Effect of process parameters on the surface morphology and mechanical performance of silicon structures after deep reactive ion etching (DRIE). Journal of Microelectromech Systems, 11(3), 264–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gorreta, S., Fernandez, D., Blokhina, E., Pons-Nin, J., Jimenez, V., O’Connell, D., et al. (2012). Pulsed digital oscillators for electrostatic MEMS. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 59(12), 2835–2845.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Howe, R. T., & Muller, R. S. (1983). Polycrystalline silicon micromechanical beams. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 130(6), 1420–1423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bustillo, J. M., Howe, R. T., & Muller, R. S. (1998). Surface micromachining for microelectromechanical systems. Proceedings of the IEEE, 86(8), 1552–1574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12.
  13. 13.
  14. 14.
    Cowen, A., Hames, G., Glukh, K., & Hardy, B. (2013). PiezoMUMPS Design Handbook. Revision 1.2, MEMSCAP Inc.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pons, J., Gorreta, S., Blokhina, E., O’Connell, D., Feely, O., & Domínguez, M. (2014). Design and test of resonators using piezoMUMPS technology. In Symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS, Cannes, France, April (pp. 227–230).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Andò, B., Baglio, S., Trigona, C., Dumas, N., Latorre, L., & Nouet, P. (2010). Nonlinear mechanism in MEMS devices for energy harvesting applications. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 20(12), 125020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Guan, S., & Nelson, B. (2006). Magnetic composite electroplating for depositing micromagnets. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 15(2), 330–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cottone, F., Vocca, H., & Gammaitoni, L. (2009). Nonlinear energy harvesting. Physical Review Letters, 102, 080601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ando, B., Baglio, S., L’Episcopo, G., & Trigona, C. (2012). Investigation on mechanically bistable MEMS devices for energy harvesting from vibrations. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 21(4), 779–790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Myung, N. V., Park, D. Y., Yoo, B. Y., & Sumodjo, P. T. A. (2003). Development of electroplated magnetic materials for MEMS. Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 265(2), 189–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Han, M., Yuan, Q., Sun, X., & Zhang, H. (2014). Design and fabrication of integrated magnetic MEMS energy harvester for low frequency applications. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 23(1), 204–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sun, X., Yuan, Q., Fang, D., & Zhang, H. (2012). Electrodeposition and characterization of CoNiMnP permanent magnet arrays for MEMS sensors and actuators. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 188, 190–197. Selected papers from The 16th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Qiu, J., Lang, J. H., & Slocum, A. H. (2004). A curved-beam bistable mechanism. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 13(2), 137–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saif, M. T. A. (2000). On a tunable bistable MEMS-theory and experiment. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 9(2), 157–170.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hoffmann, M., Kopka, P., & Voges, E. (1999). All-silicon bistable micromechanical fiber switch based on advanced bulk micromachining. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, 5(1), 46–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Casals-Terre, J., Fargas-Marques, A., & Shkel, A. M. (2008). Snap-action bistable micromechanisms actuated by nonlinear resonance. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 17(5), 1082–1093.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Park, S., & Hah, D. (2008). Pre-shaped buckled-beam actuators: Theory and experiments. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 148(1), 186–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Krylov, S., Ilic, B. R., Schreiber, D., Seretensky, S., & Craighead, H. (2008). The pull-in behavior of electrostatically actuated bistable microstructures. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 18(5), 055026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Das, K., & Batra, R. C. (2009). Pull-in and snap-through instabilities in transient deformations of microelectromechanical systems. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 19(3), 035008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marinkovic, B., & Koser, H. (2009). Smart sand—a wide bandwidth vibration energy harvesting platform. Applied Physics Letters, 94(10).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marzencki, M., Defosseux, M., & Basrour, S. (2009). MEMS vibration energy harvesting devices with passive resonance frequency adaptation capability. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 18(6), 1444–1453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nguyen, D. S., Halvorsen, E., Jensen, G. U., & Vogl, A. (2010). Fabrication and characterization of a wideband MEMS energy harvester utilizing nonlinear springs. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 20(12), 125009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nguyen, D. S., & Halvorsen, E. (2011). Nonlinear springs for bandwidth-tolerant vibration energy harvesting. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 20(6), 1225–1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Elshurafa, A. M., Khirallah, K., Tawfik, H. H., Emira, A., Abdel Aziz, A. K. S., & Sedky, S. M. (2011). Nonlinear dynamics of spring softening and hardening in folded-MEMS comb drive resonators. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 20(4), 943–958.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gabbay, L. D., & Senturia, S. D. (2000). Computer-aided generation of nonlinear reduced-order dynamic macromodels. i. non-stress-stiffened case. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 9(2), 262–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mehner, J. E., Gabbay, L. D., & Senturia, S. D. (2000). Computer-aided generation of nonlinear reduced-order dynamic macromodels. ii. stress-stiffened case. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 9(2), 270–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hajati, A., & Kim, S. G., (2011). Ultra-wide bandwidth piezoelectric energy harvesting. Applied Physics Letters, 99(8).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Tvedt, L. G. W., Nguyen, D. S., & Halvorsen, E. (2010). Nonlinear behavior of an electrostatic energy harvester under wide and narrowband excitation. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 19(2), 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Umeda, M., Nakamura, K., & Ueha, S. (1996). Analysis of the transformation of mechanical impact energy to electric energy using piezoelectric vibrator. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 35(1), Part 1, No. 5B, 3267–3273.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dominguez-Pumar, M., Pons-Nin, J., & Ricart, J. (2008). General dynamics of pulsed digital oscillators. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 55(7), 2038–2050.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Blokhina, E., Pons-Nin, J., Ricart, J., Feely, O., & Dominguez-Pumar, M. (2010). Control of MEMS vibration modes with pulsed digital oscillators part i: Theory. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 57(8), 1865–1878.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ricart, J., Pons-Nin, J., Blokhina, E., Gorreta, S., Hernando, J., Manzaneque, T., et al. (2010). Control of MEMS vibration modes with pulsed digital oscillators part ii: Simulation and experimental results. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers, 57(8), 1879–1890.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Liu, H., Lee, C., Kobayashi, T., Tay, C. J., & Quan, C. (2012). Piezoelectric MEMS-based wideband energy harvesting systems using a frequency-up-conversion cantilever stopper. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 186, 242–248. Selected Papers presented at Eurosensors XXV Athens, Greece, September 2011.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liu, H., Lee, C., Kobayashi, T., Tay, C. J., & Quan, C. (2012). Investigation of a MEMS piezoelectric energy harvester system with a frequency-widened-bandwidth mechanism introduced by mechanical stoppers. Smart Materials and Structures, 21(3), 035005.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu, H., Tay, C. J., Quan, C., Kobayashi, T., & Lee, C. (2011). Piezoelectric MEMS energy harvester for low-frequency vibrations with wideband operation range and steadily increased output power. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 20(5), 1131–1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ma, W., Zhu, R., Rufer, L., Zohar, Y., & Wong, M. (2007). An integrated floating-electrode electric microgenerator. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 16(1), 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ahmad, M. R., Khir, M. H., & Dennis, J. O. (2013). Design and modeling of the trapezoidal electrodes array for electrets energy harvester. In SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing (p. 87280Z).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Suzuki, Y., Edamoto, M., Kasagi, N., Kashiwagi, K., Morizawa, Y., Yokoyama, T., et al. (2008). Micro electret energy harvesting device with analogue impedance conversion circuit. PowerMEMS, 2008, 7–10.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Basset, P., Galayko, D., Paracha, A. M., Marty, F., Dudka, A., & Bourouina, T. (2009). A batch-fabricated and electret-free silicon electrostatic vibration energy harvester. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 19(11), 115025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Suzuki, Y. (2011). Recent progress in MEMS electret generator for energy harvesting. IEEE Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Engineering, 6(2), 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Takamatsu, T. (1991). Life time of thermal electrets of carnauba wax, esters, fatty acids and alcohols. In 7th International Symposium on Electrets, (pp. 106–110).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Minami, T., Utsubo, T., Yamatani, T., Miyata, T., & Ohbayashi, Y. (2003). SiO2 electret thin films prepared by various deposition methods. Thin Solid Films, 426(1–2), 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sakane, Y., Suzuki, Y., & Kasagi, N. (2008). The development of a high-performance perfluorinated polymer electret and its application to micro power generation. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 18(10), 104011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Nimo, A., Mescheder, U., Müller, B., & Elkeir, A. S. A. (2011). 3D capacitive vibrational micro harvester using isotropic charging of electrets deposited on vertical sidewalls. In SPIE Microtechnologies. International Society for Optics and Photonics (p. 80661Q).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mescheder, U., Müller, B., Baborie, S., & Urbanovic, P. (2009). Properties of SiO2 electret films charged by ion implantation for MEMS-based energy harvesting systems. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 19(9), 094003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Mescheder, U., Nimo, A., Müller, B., & Elkeir, A. (2012). Micro harvester using isotropic charging of electrets deposited on vertical sidewalls for conversion of 3D vibrational energy. Microsystem Technologies, 18(7–8), 931–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Westby, E. R., & Halvorsen, E. (2012). Design and modelling of a patterned-electret-based energy harvester for tire pressure monitoring systems. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics, 17(5), 995–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yamashita, K., Honzumi, M., Hagiwara, K., Iguchi, Y., & Suzuki, Y. (2010) Vibration-driven MEMS energy harvester with vertical electrets. In textitProceedings of PowerMEMS, (pp. 165–168).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wang, F., & Hansen, O. (2014). Electrostatic energy harvesting device with out-of-the-plane gap closing scheme. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Liu, H., How Koh, K., & Lee, C. (2014). Ultra-wide frequency broadening mechanism for micro-scale electromagnetic energy harvester. Applied Physics Letters, 104(5).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Marin, A., Bressers, S., & Priya, S. (2011). Multiple cell configuration electromagnetic vibration energy harvester. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 44(29), 295501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Cook-Chennault, K. A., Thambi, N., & Sastry, A. M. (2008). Powering MEMS portable devices –a review of non-regenerative and regenerative power supply systems with special emphasis on piezoelectric energy harvesting systems. Smart Materials and Structures, 17(4), 043001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Morimoto, K., Kanno, I., Wasa, K., & Kotera, H. (2010). High-efficiency piezoelectric energy harvesters of c-axis-oriented epitaxial PZT films transferred onto stainless steel cantilevers. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 163(1), 428–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Beeby, S. P., Tudor, M., & White, N. (2006). Energy harvesting vibration sources for microsystems applications. Measurement Science and Technology, 17(12), R175–R195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kim, S. G., Priya, S., & Kanno, I. (2012). Piezoelectric MEMS for energy harvesting. MRS Bulletin, 37, 1039–1050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jeon, Y. B., Sood, R., Jeong, J. H., & Kim, S. G. (2005). MEMS power generator with transverse mode thin film PZT. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 122(1), 16–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Curie, J., & Curie, P. (1880). Développement, par pression, de l’électricité polaire dans les cristaux hémiédres à faces inclinées. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Academie des Sciencies, 91, 294–295.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Curie, J., Curie, J. P., & Curie, P. (1880). Sur l’électricité polaire dans les cristaux hémiedres à faces inclinées. Comptes Rendus des Séances de l’Academie des Sciencies, 91, 383–386.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Lippmann, G. (1881). Principe de la conservation de l’électricité, ou second principe de la théorie des phénoménes électriques. Journal of Theoretical and Applied Physics, 10(1), 381–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    IEEE standard on piezoelectricity. (1988). ANSI/IEEE Std 176-1987, pp. 1–66.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ensminger, D., & Stulen, F. B. (2008). Ultrasonics: data, equations and their practical uses. Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bowen, C. R., Kim, H. A., Weaver, P. M., & Dunn, S. (2014). Piezoelectric and ferroelectric materials and structures for energy harvesting applications. Energy & Environmental Science, 7, 25–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Haertling, G. H. (1999). Ferroelectric ceramics: History and technology. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 82, 797–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Beeby, S., & White, N. (2010). Energy Harvesting for Autonomous Systems, Artech House series smart materials, structures, and systems. Artech House, Incorporated.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Jaffe, B., Roth, R. S., & Marzullo, S. (1954). Piezoelectric properties of lead zirconate-lead titanate solid-solution ceramics. Journal of Applied Physics, 25(6).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Trolier-McKinstry, S., & Muralt, P. (2004). Thin film piezoelectrics for MEMS. Journal of Electroceramics, 12(1–2), 7–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lovinger, A. J. (1983). Ferroelectric polymers. Science, 220(4602), 1115–1121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Baudry, H. (2013). Screen printing piezoelectric devices. Microelectronics International, 4(3), 71–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Dietze, M., & Es-Souni, M. (2008). Structural and functional properties of screen-printed PZTPVDF-TrFE composites. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 143(2), 329–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Fu, D. W., Zhang, W., Cai, H., Ge, J., Zhang, Y., & Xiong, R. (2011). Diisopropylammonium chloride: A ferroelectric organic salt with a high phase transition temperature and practical utilization level of spontaneous polarization. Advanced Materials, 23(47), 5658–5662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fu, D. W., Cai, H. L., Liu, Y., Ye, Q., Zhang, W., Zhang, Y., et al. (2013). Diisopropylammonium bromide is a high-temperature molecular ferroelectric crystal. Science, 339(6118), 425–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Maas, R., Koch, M., Harris, N. R., White, N. M., & Evans, A. G. R. (1997). Thick-film printing of PZT onto silicon. Materials Letters, 31(1–2), 109–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Van Schaijk, R., Elfrink, R., Kamel, T. M., & Goedbloed, M. (2008). Piezoelectric aln energy harvesters for wireless autonomous transducer solutions. In Sensors, 2008 IEEE (pp. 45–48).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Guy, I. L., Muensit, S., & Goldys, E. M. (1999). Extensional piezoelectric coefficients of gallium nitride and aluminium nitride. Applied Physics Letters, 75(26), 4133–4135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Tadigadapa, S., & Mateti, K. (2009). Piezoelectric MEMS sensors: state-of-the-art and perspectives. Measurement Science and Technology, 20(9), 092001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Crisler, D. F., Cupal, J. J., & Moore, A. R. (1968). Dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling constants of zinc oxide crystals. Proceedings of the IEEE, 56(2), 225–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Park, J. C., Park, J. Y., & Lee, Y. (2010). Modeling and characterization of piezoelectric d33-mode MEMS energy harvester. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 19(5), 1215–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Cho, J., Anderson, M., Richards, R., Bahr, D., & Richards, C. (2005). Optimization of electromechanical coupling for a thin-film PZT membrane: I. modeling. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 15(10), 1797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kim, S. B., Park, H., Kim, S. H., Wikle, H. C., Park, J. H., & Kim, D. J. (2013). Comparison of MEMS PZT cantilevers based on d31 and d33 modes for vibration energy harvesting. Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 22(1), 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Erturk, A., & Inman, D. J. (2011). Piezoelectric energy harvesting. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Xu, R., Lei, A., Dahl-Petersen, C., Hansen, K., Guizzetti, M., Birkelund, M., Thomsen, E., et al. (2012). Fabrication and characterization of MEMS-based PZT/PZT bimorph thick film vibration energy harvesters. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 22(9).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel Domínguez-Pumar
    • 1
  • Joan Pons-Nin
    • 1
  • Juan A. Chávez-Domínguez
    • 2
  1. 1.MNT-DEETechnical University of CataloniaBarcelonaSpain
  2. 2.GSS-DEETechnical University of CataloniaBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations