Advertisement

Embodiment and Social Interaction

  • Jessica LindblomEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Cognitive Systems Monographs book series (COSMOS, volume 26)

Abstract

This chapter discusses different aspects of embodiment in social interaction. Experimental findings of social embodiment effects in social psychology, emotions, and attitudes are reviewed. Furthermore, phenomenological issues as well as neurological underpinnings of embodiment in social interaction are discussed. In particular, the chapter addresses embodied simulation theories, and the action-perception linkage of mirror neurons. Subsequently the focus moves on to discuss embodied linguistics, exploring the role of embodiment in language and gesture, and in particular their interrelatedness. Finally, four fundamental functions of embodiment in social interaction are identified.

Keywords

Facial Expression Bodily State Mirror Neuron Social Stimulus Mirror Neuron System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Carruthers, P., Smith, P.K.: Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gallagher, S.: How the Body Shapes the Mind. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Semin, G.R., Smith, E.R.: Interfaces of social psychology with situated and embodied cognition. Cogn. Syst. Res. 3(3), 385–396 (2002)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barsalou, L.W., Niedenthal, P.M., Barbey, A.K., Ruppert, J.A.: Social embodiment. Psychol. Learn. Motiv. 43, 43–92 (2003)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Niedenthal, P.M., Barsalou, L.W., Ric, F., Krauth-Gruber, S.: Embodiment in the acquisition and use of emotion knowledge. In: Barrett, L.F., Niedenthal, P.M., Winkielman, P. (eds.) Emotion and Consciousness, pp. 21–50. The Guilford Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Niedenthal, P.M., Barsalou, L.W., Winkielman, P., Krauth-Gruber, S., Ric, F.: Embodiment in attitudes, social perception, and emotion. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Rev. 9(3), 184–211 (2005)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Weisfeld, G.E., Beresford, J.M.: Erectness of posture as an indicator of dominance or success in humans. Motiv. Emot. 6(2), 113–131 (1982)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bargh, J.A., Chen, M., Burrows, L.: Automaticity of social behavior: direct effects of trait construct and stereotype activation on action. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 71(2), 230 (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Aarts, H., Dijksterhuis, A.: Category activation effects in judgment and behaviour: the moderating role of perceived comparability. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 41(1), 123–138 (2002)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dijksterhuis, A., Bargh, J.A.: The perception-behavior expressway: automatic effects of social perception on social behavior. Adv. Exp. Soc. Psychol. 33, 1–40 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andersen, S.M., Reznik, I., Manzella, L.M.: Eliciting facial affect, motivation, and expectancies in transference: significant-other representations in social relations. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 71(6), 1108 (1996)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cacioppo, J.T., Petty, R.E., Losch, M.E., Kim, H.S.: Electromyographic activity over facial muscle regions can differentiate the valence and intensity of affective reactions. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 50(2), 260 (1986)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vanman, E.J., Miller, N.: Applications of emotion theory and research to stereotyping and intergroup relations. In: Mackie, D.M., Hamilton, D.L.E. (eds.) Affect, Cognition, and Stereotyping: Interactive Processes in Group Perception, pp. 213–238. Academic Press, San Diego (1993)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vanman, E.J., Paul, B.Y., Ito, T.A., Miller, N.: The modern face of prejudice and structural features that moderate the effect of cooperation on affect. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 73(5), 941–959 (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dijksterhuis, A., Van Knippenberg, A.: Behavioral indecision: effects of self-focus on automatic behavior. Soc. Cogn. 18(1), 55–74 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bernieri, F.J.: Coordinated movement and rapport in teacher-student interactions. J. Nonverbal Behav. 12(2), 120–138 (1988)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bernieri, F.J., Reznick, J.S., Rosenthal, R.: Synchrony, pseudosynchrony, and dissynchrony: measuring the entrainment process in mother-infant interactions. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 54(2), 243–253 (1988)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chartrand, T.L., Bargh, J.A.: The chameleon effect: the perception-behavior link and social interaction. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 76(6), 893–910 (1999)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dimberg, U.: Facial reactions to facial expressions. Psychophysiology 19(6), 643–647 (1982)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Provine, R.R.: Yawning as a stereotypical action pattern and releasing stimulus. Ethology 72(02), 109–122 (1986)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    O’Toole, R., Dubin, R.: Baby feeding and body sway: an experiment in George Herbert Mead’s “taking the role of the other”. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 10(1), 59–65 (1968)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bavelas, J.B., Black, A., Lemery, C.R., Mullet, J.: Form and function in motor mimicry: topographic evidence that the primary function is communicative. Hum. Commun. Res. 14(3), 275–300 (1988)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    LaFrance, M.: Postural mirroring and intergroup relations. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 11(2), 207–217 (1985)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Neumann, R., Strack, F.: “Mood contagion”: the automatic transfer of mood between persons. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 79(2), 211–223 (2000)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Semin, G.R.: Agenda 2000 communication: language as an implementational device for cognition. Eur. J. Soc. Psychol. 30(5), 595–612 (2000)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Stepper, S., Strack, F.: Proprioceptive determinants of emotional and nonemotional feelings. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 64(2), 211–220 (1993)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Riskind, J.H., Gotay, C.C.: Physical posture: could it have regulatory or feedback effects on motivation and emotion? Motiv. Emot. 6(3), 273–298 (1982)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Adelmann, P.K., Zajonc, R.B.: Facial efference and the experience of emotion. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 40(1), 249–280 (1989)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Strack, F., Martin, L.L., Stepper, S.: Inhibiting and facilitating conditions of the human smile: a nonobtrusive test of the facial feedback hypothesis. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 54(5), 768–777 (1988)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chen, M., Bargh, J.A.: Consequences of automatic evaluation: Immediate behavioral predispositions to approach or avoid the stimulus. Pers. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 25(2), 215–224 (1999)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Förster, J., Strack, F.: Motor actions in retrieval of valenced information: a motor congruence effect. Percept. Mot. Skills 85(3), 1419–1427 (1997)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Förster, J., Strack, F.: Motor actions in retrieval of valenced information: II. boundary conditions for motor congruence effects. Percept. Mot. Skills 86(3), 1423–1426 (1998)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Laird, J.D., Wagener, J.J., Halal, M., Szegda, M.: Remembering what you feel: effects of emotion on memory. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 42(4), 646–652 (1982)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zajonc, R.B., Pietromonaco, P., Bargh, J.: Independence and interaction of affect and cognition. In: Clark, M.S., Fiske, S.T. (eds.) Affect and Cognition: The Seventeenth Annual Carnegie Symposium on Cognition, pp. 211–227. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ (1982)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Niedenthal, P.M., Brauer, M., Halberstadt, J.B., Innes-Ker, Å.H.: When did her smile drop? Facial mimicry and the influences of emotional state on the detection of change in emotional expression. Cogn. Emot. 15(6), 853–864 (2001)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wallbott, H.G.: Recognition of emotion from facial expression via imitation? Some indirect evidence for an old theory. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 30(3), 207–219 (1991)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Förster, J., Strack, F.: Influence of overt head movements on memory for valenced words: a case of conceptual-motor compatibility. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 71(3), 421–430 (1996)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Riskind, J.H.: They stoop to conquer: guiding and self-regulatory functions of physical posture after success and failure. J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 47(3), 479–479 (1984)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wilson, M.: Six views of embodied cognition. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 9(4), 625–636 (2002)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wells, G.L., Petty, R.E.: The effects of over head movements on persuasion: compatibility and incompatibility of responses. Basic Appl. Soc. Psychol. 1(3), 219–230 (1980)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Tom, G., Pettersen, P., Lau, T., Burton, T., Cook, J.: The role of overt head movement in the formation of affect. Basic Appl. Soc. Psychol. 12(3), 281–289 (1991)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Damasio, A.: The Feeling of what Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Harcourt, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bush, L.K., Barr, C.L., McHugo, G.J., Lanzetta, J.T.: The effects of facial control and facial mimicry on subjective reactions to comedy routines. Motiv. Emot. 13(1), 31–52 (1989)Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dimberg, U., Thunberg, M., Elmehed, K.: Unconscious facial reactions to emotional facial expressions. Psychol. Sci. 11(1), 86–89 (2000)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zajonc, R., Markus, H.: Affect and cognition: the hard interface. In: Izard, C.E., Kagan, J., Zajonc, R.B. (eds.) Emotions, Cognition, and Behavior, pp. 73–102. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1984)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Damasio, A.: Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. Harcourt, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Barsalou, L.W.: Perceptions of perceptual symbols. Behav. Brain Sci. 22(04), 637–660 (1999)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Clark, A.: An embodied cognitive science? Trends Cogn. Sci. 3(9), 345–351 (1999)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Blakemore, S.J., Winston, J., Frith, U.: Social cognitive neuroscience: where are we heading? Trends Cogn. Sci. 8(5), 216–222 (2004)Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gallagher, S.: Phenomenological and experimental contributions to understanding embodied experience. In: Ziemke, T., Zlatev, J., Frank R.M. (eds.) Body, Language and Mind: Vol. 1, Embodiment, pp. 271–295. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dautenhahn, K.: I could be you: the phenomenological dimension of social understanding. Cyber. Syst. 28(5), 417–453 (1997)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gallese, V., Goldman, A.: Mirror neurons and the simulation theory of mind-reading. Trends Cogn. Sci. 2(12), 493–501 (1998)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gallese, V., Keysers, C., Rizzolatti, G.: A unifying view of the basis of social cognition. Trends Cogn. Sci. 8(9), 396–403 (2004)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kohler, E., Keysers, C., Umilta, M.A., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., Rizzolatti, G.: Hearing sounds, understanding actions: action representation in mirror neurons. Science 297(5582), 846–848 (2002)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Rizzolatti, G.: The mirror neuron system and its function in humans. Anat. Embryol. 210(5), 419–421 (2005)Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V.: From mirror neurons to imitation: facts and speculations. In: Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V. (eds.) The Imitative Mind: Development, Evolution, and Brain Bases, vol. 6, pp. 247–266. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2002)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Svensson, H., Lindblom, J., Ziemke, T.: Making sense of embodied cognition: Simulation theories of shared neural mechanisms for sensorimotor and cognitive processes. In: Ziemke, T., Zlatev, J., Frank, R.M. (eds.) Body, Language and Mind: Vol. 1, Embodiment, pp. 241–270. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hesslow, G.: Conscious thought as simulation of behaviour and perception. Trends Cogn. Sci. 6(6), 242–247 (2002)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hurley, S.L.: Consciousness in Action. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (1998)Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dewey, J.: The reflex arc concept in psychology. Psychol. Rev. 3(4), 357–370 (1896)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Decety, J.: Do imagined and executed actions share the same neural substrate? Cogn. Brain. Res. 3(2), 87–93 (1996)Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Frith, C., Dolan, R.: The role of the prefrontal cortex in higher cognitive functions. Cogn. Brain. Res. 5(1–2), 175–181 (1996)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Grush, R.: In defense of some ‘Cartesian’ assumptions concerning the brain and its operation. Biol. Philos. 18(1), 53–93 (2003)Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Grush, R.: The emulation theory of representation: motor control, imagery, and perception. Behav. Brain Sci. 27(03), 377–396 (2004)Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Gallese, V.: The manifold nature of interpersonal relations: the quest for a common mechanism. In: Frith, C.D., Wolpert, D.M. (eds.) The Neuroscience of Social Interaction: Decoding, Imitating and Influencing the Actions of Others, pp. 159–182. Oxford University Press, Oxford (2004)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gallese, V.: Embodied simulation: from neurons to phenomenal experience. Phenomenol. Cogn. Sci. 4(1), 23–48 (2005)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hesslow, G.: Will neuroscience explain consciousness? J. Theor. Biol. 171(1), 29–39 (1994)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Jeannerod, M.: The representing brain: neural correlates of motor intention and imagery. Behav. Brain Sci. 17(2), 187–202 (1994)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Jeannerod, M.: Neural simulation of action: a unifying mechanism for motor cognition. Neuroimage 14(1), S103–S109 (2001)Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Clayton, N.S., Bussey, T.J., Dickinson, A.: Can animals recall the past and plan for the future? Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4(8), 685–691 (2003)Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Clark, A.: Beyond the flesh: some lessons from a mole cricket. Artif. Life 11(1–2), 233–244 (2005)Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Clark, A., Grush, R.: Towards a cognitive robotics. Adap. Behav. 7(1), 5–16 (1999)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Wolpert, D.M., Kawato, M.: Multiple paired forward and inverse models for motor control. Neural Networks 11(7), 1317–1329 (1998)Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Desmurget, M., Grafton, S.: Forward modeling allows feedback control for fast reaching movements. Trends Cogn. Sci. 4(11), 423–431 (2000)Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Blakemore, S.J., Frith, C.D., Wolpert, D.M.: Spatio-temporal prediction modulates the perception of self-produced stimuli. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 11(5), 551–559 (1999)Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Damasio, A.: Descartes’ Error: Emotion. Reason and the Human Brain. Grosset, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Nielsen, L.: The simulation of emotion experience: on the emotional foundations of theory of mind. Phenomenol. Cogn. Sci. 1(3), 255–286 (2002)Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Decety, J., Chaminade, T.: Neural correlates of feeling sympathy. Neuropsychologia 41(2), 127–138 (2003)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Glenberg, A.M., Kaschak, M.P.: Grounding language in action. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 9(3), 558–565 (2002)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Glenberg, A.M., Kaschak, M.P.: The body’s contribution to language. Psychol. Learn. Motiv. 43, 93–126 (2003)Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Jacob, P., Jeannerod, M.: The motor theory of social cognition: a critique. Trends Cogn. Sci. 9(1), 21–25 (2005)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gallagher, S.: Simulation trouble. Soc. Neurosci. 2(3–4), 353–365 (2007)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Svensson, H.: Embodied Simulation as Off-line Representation. Licentiate thesis, Linköping University and University of Skövde, Sweden (2007)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Rizzolatti, G., Arbib, M.A.: Language within our grasp. Trends Neurosci. 21(5), 188–194 (1998)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Di Pellegrino, G., Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Gallese, V., Rizzolatti, G.: Understanding motor events: a neurophysiological study. Exp. Brain Res. 91(1), 176–180 (1992)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rizzolatti, G., Fadiga, L., Gallese, V., Fogassi, L.: Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cogn. Brain. Res. 3(2), 131–141 (1996)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Arbib, M.A.: From monkey-like action recognition to human language: an evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics. Behav. Brain Sci. 28(02), 105–124 (2005)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gallese, V., Ferrari, P.F., Kohler, E., Fogassi, L.: The eyes, the hand, and the mind: behavioral and neurophysical aspects of social cognition. In: Bekoff, M., Allen, C., Burghardt, G.M. (eds.) The Cognitive Animal: Empirical and Theoretical Perspectives on Animal Cognition, pp. 451–461. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2002)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Fadiga, L., Fogassi, L., Pavesi, G., Rizzolatti, G., et al.: Motor facilitation during action observation: a magnetic stimulation study. J. Neurophysiol. 73(6), 2608–2611 (1995)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Visalberghi, E., Fragaszy, D.M.: "Do monkeys ape"? Ten years after. In: Nehaniv, C.L., Dautenhahn, K. (eds.) Imitation in Animals and Artifacts, pp. 471–499. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (2002)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Iacoboni, M., Woods, R.P., Brass, M., Bekkering, H., Mazziotta, J.C., Rizzolatti, G.: Cortical mechanisms of human imitation. Science 286(5449), 2526–2528 (1999)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Buccino, G., Vogt, S., Ritzl, A., Fink, G.R., Zilles, K., Freund, H.J., Rizzolatti, G.: Neural circuits underlying imitation learning of hand actions: an event-related fMRI study. Neuron 42(2), 323–334 (2004)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Tomasello, M.: The Cultural Origins of Human Cognition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (1999)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Iacoboni, M., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Gallese, V., Buccino, G., Mazziotta, J.C., Rizzolatti, G.: Grasping the intentions of others with one’s own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biol. 3(3), e79 (2005)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Wicker, B., Keysers, C., Plailly, J., Royet, J.P., Gallese, V., Rizzolatti, G., Aiguier, C.J.: Both of us disgusted in my insula: the common neural basis of seeing and feeling disgust. Neuron 40, 655–664 (2003)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sebanz, N., Knoblich, G., Prinz, W.: Representing others’ actions: just like one’s own? Cognition 88(3), B11–B21 (2003)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kilner, J.M., Paulignan, Y., Blakemore, S.J.: An interference effect of observed biological movement on action. Curr. Biol. 13(6), 522–525 (2003)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Farnell, B.M.: Do You See what I Mean?: Plains Indian Sign Talk and the Embodiment of Action. University of Texas Press, Austin (1995)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Boas, F.: Sign Language: 2nd General Report on the Indians of BC, Report of the 60th Meeting for the Advancement of Science. John Murray, London (1890)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Boas, F.: Dance and music in the life of the northwest coast indians of North America (Kwakiutl)(Originally published in 1944). In: Boas, F. (ed.) The Function of Dance in Human Society, pp. 7–18. Dance Horizons, New York (1972)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Boas, F.: Introduction. In: Boas, F. (ed.) The Handbook of American Indian Languages, pp. 1–83. Bureau of American Ethnology, Smithsonian Institute, Washington, DC (1911)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Knapp, M., Hall, J.: Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction, 4th edn. Harcourt Brace College Publication, Fort Worth, Texas (1997)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Farnell, B.: Moving bodies, acting selves. Annu. Rev. Anthropol. 28, 341–373 (1999)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Efron, D.: Gesture and Environment. King’s Crown Press, New York (1942)Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Birdwhistell, R.L.: Kinesics and Context: Essays on Body Motion Communication. University Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia (1970)Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Hall, E.T.: The Silent Language. Doubleday, New York (1959)Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Hall, E.T.: The Hidden Dimension. Doubleday, New York (1966)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    McNeill, D.: Hand and Mind: What Gestures Reveal about Thought. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1992)Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Goldin-Meadow, S.: Hearing Gesture: How Our Hands Help Us Think. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (2003)Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Iverson, J.M., Thelen, E.: Hand, mouth and brain: the dynamic emergence of speech and gesture. J. Conscious. Stud. 6(11–12), 19–40 (1999)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ojemann, G.A.: Common cortical and thalamic mechanisms for language and motor functions. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 246(6), R901–R903 (1984)Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Fried, I., Katz, A., McCarthy, G., Sass, K.J., Williamson, P., Spencer, S.S., Spencer, D.D.: Functional organization of human supplementary motor cortex studied by electrical stimulation. J. Neurosci. 11(11), 3656–3666 (1991)Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Grabowski, T.J., Damasio, H., Damasio, A.R.: Premotor and prefrontal correlates of category-related lexical retrieval. Neuroimage 7(3), 232–243 (1998)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Petersen, S.E., Fox, P.T., Posner, M.I., Mintun, M., Raichle, M.E.: Positron emission tomographic studies of the processing of singe words. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 1(2), 153–170 (1989)Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pulvermüller, F., Preissl, H., Lutzenberger, W., Birbaumer, N.: Brain rhythms of language: nouns versus verbs. Eur. J. Neurosci. 8(5), 937–941 (1996)Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Bonda, E., Petrides, M., Frey, S., Evans, A.C.: Frontal cortex involvement in organized sequences of hand movements: evidence from a positron emission tomography study. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 20, 353 (1994)Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Krams, M., Rushworth, M., Deiber, M.P., Frackowiak, R., Passingham, R.: The preparation, execution and suppression of copied movements in the human brain. Exp. Brain Res. 120(3), 386–398 (1998)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hill, E.L.: A dyspraxic deficit in specific language impairment and developmental coordination disorder? Evidence from hand and arm movements. Dev. Med. Child Neurol. 40(6), 388–395 (1998)Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kimura, D., Archibald, Y.: Motor functions of the left hemisphere. Brain 97(2), 337–350 (1974)Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Goodwyn, S.W., Acredolo, L.P.: Symbolic gesture versus word: is there a modality advantage for onset of symbol use? Child Dev. 64(3), 688–701 (1993)Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Goodwyn, S.W., Acredolo, L.P.: Encouraging symbolic gestures: a new perspective on the relationship between gesture and speech. In: Iverson, J.M., Goldin-Meadow, S. (eds.) The Nature and Functions of Gesture in Children’s Communication: New Directions for Child Development, pp. 61–73. Jossey Bass, San Franscisco (1998)Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gibbs Jr, R.W.: Embodiment and Cognitive Science. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, MA (2006)Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lakoff, G., Johnson, M.: Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. Basic Books, New York (1999)Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Lakoff, G.: Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What Categories Tell Us about the Human Mind. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (1987)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Barsalou, L.W., Solomon, K.O., Wu, L.L.: Perceptual simulation in conceptual tasks. In: Hiraga, M.K., Sinha, C., Wilcox, S. (eds.) Cultural, Typological and Psychological Perspectives in Cognitive Linguistics, pp. 209–228. John Benjamins, Amsterdam (1999)Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Markman, A.B., Brendl, C.M.: Constraining theories of embodied cognition. Psychol. Sci. 16(1), 6–10 (2005)Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Umilta, M.A., Kohler, E., Gallese, V., Fogassi, L., Fadiga, L., Keysers, C., Rizzolatti, G.: I know what you are doing: a neurophysiological study. Neuron 31(1), 155–165 (2001)Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Goldin-Meadow, S.: The role of gesture in communication and thinking. Trends Cogn. Sci. 3(11), 419–429 (1999)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Goodwin, C.: Action and embodiment within situated human interaction. J. Pragmat. 32(10), 1489–1522 (2000)Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    McNeill, D.: Gesture and Thought. University of Chicago Press, Chicago (2005)Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Roth, W.M.: From action to discourse: the bridging function of gestures. Cogn. Syst. Res. 3(3), 535–554 (2002)Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Roth, W.M.: Communication as situated, embodied practice. In: Ziemke, T., Zlatev, J., Frank, R.M. (eds.) Body, Language and Mind: Vol. 1, Embodiment, pp. 431–456. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Rauscher, F.H., Krauss, R.M., Chen, Y.: Gesture, speech, and lexical access: the role of lexical movements in speech production. Psychol. Sci. 7(4), 226–231 (1996)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Kita, S.: How representational gestures help speaking. Language and Gesture, pp. 162–185. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2000)Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Streeck, J.: How to do things with things. Hum. Stud. 19(4), 365–384 (1996)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Iverson, J.M., Goldin-Meadow, S.: Why people gesture when they speak. Nature 396(6708), 228–228 (1998)Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    King, B.J.: The Dynamic Dance: Nonvocal Communication in African Great Apes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (2004)Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Goodwin, C.: The semiotic body in its environment. In: Coupland, J., Gwyn, R. (eds.) Discourses of the Body, pp. 19–42. Palgrave/MacMillan, New York (2003)Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Donald, M.: Origins of the Modern Mind: Three Stages in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA (1991)Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Zlatev, J.: Embodiment, language and mimesis. In: Ziemke, T., Zlatev, J., Frank, R.M. (eds.) Body, Language and Mind: Vol. 1, Embodiment, pp. 297–337. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin (2007)Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Arbib, M.A.: The evolving mirror system: a neural basis for language readiness. Stud. Evoluation Langauge 3, 182–200 (2003)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Corballis, M.C.: The gestural origin of language. Am. Sci. 87(2), 138 (1999)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of InformaticsUniversity of SkövdeSkövdeSweden

Personalised recommendations