Advertisement

DIESEL-X: A Game-Based Tool for Early Risk Detection of Dyslexia in Preschoolers

  • Luc GeurtsEmail author
  • Vero Vanden Abeele
  • Véronique Celis
  • Jelle Husson
  • Lieven Van den Audenaeren
  • Leen Loyez
  • Ann Goeleven
  • Jan Wouters
  • Pol Ghesquière
Part of the Advances in Game-Based Learning book series (AGBL)

Abstract

DIESEL-X is a computer game that was developed to detect a high risk for developing dyslexia in preschoolers. The game includes three mini-games that test the player on three skills that are considered to yield outcome measures that predict the onset of dyslexia: the detection threshold of frequency modulated tones, a test on phonological awareness in which the player has to identify words that have the same phonetic ending, and a test on letter knowledge. In order to keep the motivation of the player high during testing, these tests are embedded in a computer game. We discuss the participatory design process that was adopted to design and develop the game, the rationale behind the design decisions, and we describe the resulting games.

Keywords

Early detection of dyslexia Games for dyslexia Games for preschoolers Participatory design 

References

  1. Bailey, P. J., & Snowling, M. J. (2002). Auditory processing and the development of language and literacy. British Medical Bulletin, 63(1), 135–146. doi: 10.1093/bmb/63.1.135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barendregt, W., Bouwhuis, D., de Ridder, H., & Bekker, M. (2006). Evaluating fun and usability in computer games with children. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven. Retrieved from http://library.tue.nl/catalog/LinkToVubis.csp?DataBib=6:602065.
  3. Beyer, H., & Holtzblatt, K. (1997). Contextual design: A customer-centered approach to systems designs (1st ed.). New York, NY: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  4. Boets, B., Ghesquière, P., van Wieringen, A., & Wouters, J. (2007). Speech perception in preschoolers at family risk for dyslexia: Relations with low-level auditory processing and phonological ability. Brain and Language, 101(1), 19–30. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2006.06.009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boets, B., Wouters, J., van Wieringen, A., Desmedt, B., & Ghesquière, P. (2008). Modelling relations between sensory processing, speech perception, orthographic and phonological ability, and literacy achievement. Brain and Language, 106(1), 29–40. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2007.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boets, B., Wouters, J., van Wieringen, A., & Ghesquière, P. (2006a). Auditory temporal information processing in preschool children at family risk for dyslexia: Relations with phonological abilities and developing literacy skills. Brain and Language, 97(1), 64–79. doi: 10.1016/j.bandl.2005.07.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boets, B., Wouters, J., van Wieringen, A., & Ghesquière, P. (2006b). Coherent motion detection in preschool children at family risk for dyslexia. Vision Research, 46(4), 527–535. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2005.08.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A causal connection. Nature, 301(5899), 419–421. doi: 10.1038/301419a0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Celis, V., Husson, J., Abeele, V. V., Loyez, L., Van den Audenaeren, L., Ghesquière, P., … Geurts, L. (2013). Translating preschoolers’ game experiences into design guidelines via a laddering study. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (pp. 147–156). New York, NY: ACM. doi: 10.1145/2485760.2485772.
  10. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York, NY: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  11. Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (pp. 9–15). Retrieved from http://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=2181040.
  12. Eder, D., & Fingerson, L. (2002). Interviewing children and adolescents. In J. F. Gubrium & J. A. Holstein (Eds.), Handbook of interview research: Context and method (pp. 181–201). Thousand oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  13. Farmer, M. E., & Klein, R. M. (1995). The evidence for a temporal processing deficit linked to dyslexia: A review. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2(4), 460–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fawcett, A., & Nicolson, R. (1995). Dyslexia in children: Multidisciplinary perspectives. London, England: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  15. Ferwerda, J., & Rehon, B. (2007). MagnoFly: Game-based screening for dyslexia. Journal of Vision, 7(9), 520. doi: 10.1167/7.9.520.Google Scholar
  16. Fuchs, M. (2005). Children and adolescents as respondents. Experiments on question order, response order, scale effects and the effect of numeric values associated with response options. Journal of Official Statistics, 21(4), 701–725.Google Scholar
  17. Gaggi, O., Galiazzo, G., Palazzi, C., Facoetti, A., & Franceschini, S. (2012). A serious game for predicting the risk of developmental dyslexia in pre-readers children. In 2012 21st International Conference on Computer Communications and Networks (ICCCN) (pp. 1–5). doi: 10.1109/ICCCN.2012.6289249.
  18. Gee, J. P. (2003). What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy (1st ed.). Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/1403961697.
  19. Gersons-Wolfensberger, D. C. M., & Ruijssenaars, W. A. J. J. M. (1997). Definition and treatment of dyslexia: A report by the committee on dyslexia of the health council of the Netherlands. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(2), 209–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), 597–607.Google Scholar
  21. Hanna, L., Neapolitan, D., & Risden, K. (2004). Evaluating computer game concepts with children. In Proceedings of the 2004 conference on Interaction design and children: building a community (pp. 49–56). College Park, MD: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1017833.1017840.
  22. Hintikka, S., Mikko, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2005). Computerized training of the correspondences between phonological and orthographic units. Written Language and Literacy, 8(2), 79–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hulme, C., Bowyer-Crane, C., Carroll, J. M., Duff, F. J., & Snowling, M. J. (2012). The causal role of phoneme awareness and letter-sound knowledge in learning to read combining intervention studies with mediation analyses. Psychological Science, 23(6), 572–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Juul, J. (2011). Half-real: Video games between real rules and fictional worlds. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  25. Kirriemuir, J., & McFarlane, A. (2004). Literature review in games and learning. Bristol, England: Futurelab.Google Scholar
  26. Laneau, J., Boets, B., Moonen, M., van Wieringen, A., & Wouters, J. (2005). A flexible auditory research platform using acoustic or electric stimuli for adults and young children. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 142(1), 131–136. doi: 10.1016/j.jneumeth.2004.08.015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lefly, D. L., & Pennington, B. F. (1991). Spelling errors and reading fluency in compensated adult dyslexics. Annals of Dyslexia, 41, 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lyytinen, H., & Erskine, J. (2006, February 22). Early identification and prevention of reading problems. In Encyclopedia on Early Childhood Development. Retrieved from http://www.enfant-encyclopedie.com/Pages/PDF/Lyytinen-ErskineANGxp.pdf.
  29. Malone, T. W. (1980). What makes things fun to learn? Heuristics for designing instructional computer games. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM SIGSMALL Symposium and the First SIGPC Symposium on Small Systems (pp. 162–169). ACM, New York, NY. doi: 10.1145/800088.802839.
  30. Markopoulos, P., & Bekker, M. (2003). Interaction design and children. Interacting with Computers, 15(2), 141–149. doi: 10.1016/S0953-5438(03)00004-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. McArthur, G. M., & Bishop, D. V. (2001). Auditory perceptual processing in people with reading and oral language impairments: Current issues and recommendations. Dyslexia, 7(3), 150–170. doi: 10.1002/dys.200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McBride-Chang, C. (1995). Phonological processing, speech perception, and reading disability: An integrative review. Educational Psychologist, 30(3), 109. doi: 10.1207/s15326985ep3003_2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Menell, P., McAnally, K. I., & Stein, J. (1999). Psychophysical sensitivity and physiological response to amplitude modulation in adult dyslexic listeners. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 42(4), 797–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Merzenich, M., Wright, B., Jenkins, W., Xerri, C., Byl, N., Miller, S., & Tallal, P. (1996). Cortical plasticity underlying perceptual, motor, and cognitive skill development: Implications for neurorehabilitation. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, 61, 1–8. doi: 10.1101/SQB.1996.061.01.003.
  35. Michael, D. R., & Chen, S. L. (2005). Serious games: Games that educate, train, and inform. New York, NY: Muska & Lipman/Premier-Trade.Google Scholar
  36. Morgan, D. (1996). Focus groups as qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  37. Oudshoorn, N., & Pinch, T. (2003). How users matter: The Co-construction of users and technology (inside technology). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  38. Pagulayan, R. J., Keeker, K., Wixon, D., Romero, R. L., & Fuller, T. (2003). User-centered design in games. In The human-computer interaction handbook: fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications (pp. 883–906). L. Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=772072.772128&coll=GUIDE&dl=GUIDE&CFID=11163922&CFTOKEN=41481297.
  39. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Plong, M., Vanden Abeele, V., & Geurts, L. (2014). Requirements for an Architecture of a Generic Health Game Data Management System. In B. Schouten, S. Fedtke, M. Schijven, M. Vosmeer, & A. Gekker (Eds.), Games for health 2014 (pp. 114–124). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-07141-7_16.
  41. Prensky, M. (2001). Digital game-based learning. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  42. Ramus, F. (2003). Developmental dyslexia: Specific phonological deficit or general sensorimotor dysfunction? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13(2), 212–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rello, L., Bayarri, C., & Gorriz, A. (2012). What is wrong with this word? Dyseggxia: A game for children with dyslexia. In Proceedings of the 14th International ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Computers and Accessibility (pp. 219–220). ACM, New York, NY. doi: 10.1145/2384916.2384962.
  44. Sailer, M., Hense, J., Mandl, H., & Klevers, M. (2013). Psychological perspectives on motivation through gamification. Interaction Design & Architectures, 19, 28–37.Google Scholar
  45. Salen, K., & Zimmerman, E. (2003). Rules of play: Game design fundamentals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  46. Shaywitz, S. E. (1998). Dyslexia. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(5), 307–312. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199801293380507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shute, V. J. (2011). Stealth assessment in computer-based games to support learning. Computer games and instruction, 55(2), 503–524.Google Scholar
  48. Singleton, C., Thomas, K., & Horne, J. (2000). Computer-based cognitive assessment and the development of reading. Journal of Research in Reading, 23(2), 158–180. doi: 10.1111/1467-9817.00112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Snowling, M. J. (2000). Dyslexia (2nd Rev. ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  50. Steenbeek-Planting, E. G., Boot, M., Boer, J. C. de, Ven, M. V. de, Swart, N. M., & Hout, D. van der. (2013). Evidence-based psycholinguistic principles to remediate reading problems applied in the playful app Letterprins: A perspective of quality of healthcare on learning to read. In B. Schouten, S. Fedtke, T. Bekker, M. Schijven, & A. Gekker (Eds.), Games for health (pp. 281–291). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. Retrieved from http://link.springer.com.kuleuven.ezproxy.kuleuven.be/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-02897-8_22.
  51. Stein, J., & Walsh, V. (1997). To see but not to read; the magnocellular theory of dyslexia. Trends in Neurosciences, 20(4), 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sweetser, P., & Wyeth, P. (2005). GameFlow: A model for evaluating player enjoyment in games. Computers in Entertainment, 3(3), 3. doi: 10.1145/1077246.1077253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Talcott, J. B., & Witton, C. (2002). A sensory linguistic approach to the development of normal and impaired reading skills. In Neuropsychology and cognition series. Basic functions of language and language disorders. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  54. Talcott, J. B., Witton, C., McLean, M. F., Hansen, P. C., Rees, A., Green, G. G., & Stein, J. (2000). Dynamic sensory sensitivity and children’s word decoding skills. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(6), 2952–2957. doi: 10.1073/pnas.040546597.
  55. Tallal, P., Miller, S. L., Bedi, G., Byma, G., Wang, X., Nagarajan, S. S., … Merzenich, M. M. (1996). Language comprehension in language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified speech. Science, 271(5245), 81–84. doi: 10.1126/science.271.5245.81.
  56. Temple, E., Deutsch, G. K., Poldrack, R. A., Miller, S. L., Tallal, P., Merzenich, M. M., & Gabrieli, J. D. E. (2003). Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: Evidence from functional MRI. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 100(5), 2860–2865. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0030098100.
  57. Vanden Abeele, V., Schutter, B., Geurts, L., Desmet, S., Wauters, J., Husson, J., … Geerts, D. (2012). P-III: A player-centered, iterative, interdisciplinary and integrated framework for serious game design and development. In S. Wannemacker, S. Vandercruysse, & G. Clarebout (Eds.), Serious games: The challenge (Vol. 280, pp. 82–86). Berlin, Germany: Springer. Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/k66727215741j3t0/abstract/.
  58. Vanden Abeele, V., & Van Rompaey, V. (2006). Introducing human-centered research to game design: designing game concepts for and with senior citizens. In CHI’06 extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems (pp. 1469–1474). ACM, Montréal, Québec, Canada. doi: 10.1145/1125451.1125721.
  59. Visser, F. S., Stappers, P. J., van der Lugt, R., & Sanders, E. B.-N. (2005). Contextmapping: Experiences from practice. CoDesign, 1(2), 119–149. doi: 10.1080/15710880500135987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wang, H., & Sun, C.-T. (2011). Game reward systems: Gaming experiences and social meanings. In Proceedings of DiGRA 2011 Conference: Think Design Play (pp. 1–12). Citeseer. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.221.4931&rep=rep1&type=pdf.
  61. Witton, C., Talcott, J. B., Hansen, P. C., Richardson, A. J., Griffiths, T. D., Rees, A., … Green, G. G. (1998). Sensitivity to dynamic auditory and visual stimuli predicts nonword reading ability in both dyslexic and normal readers. Current Biology: CB, 8(14), 791–797.Google Scholar
  62. Zaman, B. (2008). Introducing contextual laddering to evaluate the likeability of games with children. Cognition, Technology & Work, 10(2), 107–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zaman, B., & Abeele, V. V. (2010). Laddering with young children in user experience evaluations: Theoretical groundings and a practical case. In Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (pp. 156–165). New York, NY: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1810543.1810561.
  64. Zaman, B., & Vanden Abeele, V. (2007). Towards a likeability framework that meets child-computer interaction & communication sciences. In Proceedings of the 6th international conference on Interaction design and children (pp. 1–8). Aalborg, Denmark: ACM. doi: 10.1145/1297277.1297279.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luc Geurts
    • 1
    Email author
  • Vero Vanden Abeele
    • 1
  • Véronique Celis
    • 2
  • Jelle Husson
    • 1
  • Lieven Van den Audenaeren
    • 1
  • Leen Loyez
    • 3
  • Ann Goeleven
    • 3
  • Jan Wouters
    • 4
  • Pol Ghesquière
    • 2
  1. 1.e-Media LabKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  2. 2.Parenting and Special Education Research UnitKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium
  3. 3.Department of Speech Language Pathology (MUCLA)University Hospitals Leuven BelgiumLeuvenBelgium
  4. 4.ExpORL, Department of NeurosciencesKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations