Advertisement

Inference to the Best Explanation

Chapter
  • 1.7k Downloads
Part of the Law, Governance and Technology Series book series (LGTS, volume 23)

Abstract

Chapter  2 studies the problem of how to model evidential reasoning of the most common kind in criminal trials using the tools presented in Chap.  1. Chapter  2 analyzes two case studies of murder trials in which the evidential reasoning employed is based on inference to the best explanation and involves motive evidence. The chapter uses argument diagramming tools, argumentation schemes, and explanatory story-based scripts to model the evidential structure of the use of inference to the best explanation in both cases. Both cases are from textbooks used to teach students how to grasp the basics of pro-contra argumentation used in evidential reasoning in a criminal trial of a highly typical sort. The chapter offers the beginnings of a solution to the technical problem of combining argument and explanation in such cases, pointing the way forward to Chap.  3, where a method of evaluating explanations is built up.

Keywords

Good Explanation Plausible Reasoning Argumentation Scheme Evidential Reasoning Hybrid Theory 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Bex, F.J. 2011. Arguments, stories and criminal evidence: A formal hybrid theory. Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bex, F.J. 2013. Abductive argumentation with stories. Workshop on formal aspects of evidential inference (International Conference on AI and Law, 2013, Rome). http://www.florisbex.com/papers/BexStoriesValues.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2013 at this site.
  3. Diels, H., and W. Kranz. 1952. Die Fragmente der Vorsokratiker. Berlin: Weidmannsche Verlagsbuchhandlung.Google Scholar
  4. Goodwin, J. 2000. Wigmore’s chart method. Informal Logic 20(3): 223–243.Google Scholar
  5. Josephson, J.R., and S.G. Josephson. 1994. Abductive inference: Computation, philosophy, technology. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Leonard, D.P. 2001. Character and motive in evidence law. Loyola of Los Angeles Law Review 34(2): 439–536.Google Scholar
  7. Pardo, M.S., and R.J. Allen. 2008. Juridical proof and the best explanation. Law and Philosophy 27(3): 223–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Pennington, N., and R. Hastie. 1993. The story model for juror decision making. In Inside the juror: The psychology of juror decision making, ed. R. Hastie, 192–221. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Prakken, H. 2010. An abstract framework for argumentation with structured arguments. Argument & Computation 1(2): 93–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Schank, R.C., and R.P. Abelson. 1977. Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  11. Thagard, P., and C. Shelley. 1997. Abductive reasoning: Logic, visual thinking, and coherence. In Logic and Scientific Methods, ed. M.-L. Dalla Chiara et al., 413–427. Dordrecht: Kluwer, http://cogsci.uwaterloo.ca/Articles/Pages/%7FAbductive.html Google Scholar
  12. Wagenaar, W.A., P.J. van Koppen, and H.F.M. Crombag. 1993. Anchored narratives: The psychology of criminal evidence. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  13. Walton, D. 1990a. Practical reasoning: Goal-driven, knowledge-based, action-guiding argumentation. Savage: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  14. Walton, D. 1990b. What is reasoning? What is an argument? Journal of Philosophy 87(8): 399–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Walton, D. 2005. Abductive reasoning. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  16. Walton, D. 2010. Why fallacies appear to be better arguments than they are. Informal Logic 30(2): 159–184.Google Scholar
  17. Walton, D., and F. Macagno. 2005. Common knowledge in legal reasoning about evidence. International Commentary on Evidence 3(1): 1–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Walton, D., and B. Schafer. 2006. Arthur, George and the mystery of the missing motive: Towards a theory of evidentiary reasoning about motives. International Commentary on Evidence 4(2): 1–47.Google Scholar
  19. Walton, D., C. Reed, and F. Macagno. 2008. Argumentation schemes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Walton, D., C.W. Tindale, and T.F. Gordon. 2014. Applying recent argumentation methods to some ancient examples of plausible reasoning. Argumentation 28(1): 85–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wigmore, J.H. 1931. The principles of judicial proof. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar
  22. Wigmore, J.H. 1935. A student’s textbook of the law of evidence. Chicago: The Foundation Press.Google Scholar
  23. Wigmore, J.H. 1940. A treatise on the Anglo-American system of evidence in trial at common law, vol. 1, 3rd ed. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Research in Reasoning, Argumentation and Rhetoric (CRRAR)University of WindsorWindsorCanada

Personalised recommendations