Long-Term Follow-Up of Retinoblastoma Survivors
- 841 Downloads
Over the past century, advances in the treatment of retinoblastoma have resulted in dramatically improved survival rates. As a result, increased attention has been given to the delineation, early identification, and treatment of survivors’ potential late effects of therapy, which may develop many years after initial treatment. While adverse oculo-visual outcomes and an increased risk of subsequent primary malignancies (in those with the genetic form of the disease) are well-documented, little is known about retinoblastoma survivors’ long-term general health and health status. The current chapter seeks to summarize the published data on retinoblastoma-specific late effects and highlight areas of inquiry which warrant further investigation. We begin by providing background on general childhood cancer survivorship and then survey the published literature on retinoblastoma-specific late medical outcomes, health-related quality of life, and cognitive outcomes. We also include data on extra-ocular retinoblastoma survivors’ late effect profiles as well as recent published data on the utility of whole body MRI screening in those with the genetic form of the disease. We conclude with clinical recommendations for the long-term care of retinoblastoma survivors.
KeywordsLate effects Retinoblastoma Survivorship Whole body MRI Screening Childhood cancer survivors
Compliance with Ethical Requirements
Danielle Novetsky Friedman declares that she has no conflict of interest.
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being in the study.
No animal studies were carried out for this article.
- COG. Children’s Oncology Group long-term follow-up guidelines for survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancers, version 4.0. 2014. Accessed 2 Oct 2014.Google Scholar
- Diller L, Chow EJ, Gurney JG, Hudson MM, Kadin-Lottick NS, Kawashima TI, Leisenring WM, Meacham LR, Mertens AC, Mulrooney DA, Oeffinger KC, Packer RJ, Robison LL, Sklar CA. Chronic disease in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort: a review of published findings. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(14):2339–55.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Friedman DN, Sklar CA, Oeffinger KC, Kernan NA, Khakoo Y, Marr BP, Wolden SL, Abramson DH, Dunkel IJ. Long-term medical outcomes in survivors of extra-ocular retinoblastoma: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(4):694–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Friedman DN, Lis E, Sklar CA, Oeffinger KC, Reppucci M, Fleischut MH, Francis JH, Marr B, Abramson DH, Dunkel IJ. Whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (WB-MRI) as surveillance for subsequent malignancies in survivors of hereditary retinoblastoma: A pilot study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61(8):1440–4.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Geenen MM, Cardous-Ubbink MC, Kremer LC, van den Bos C, van der Pal HJ, Heinen RC, Jaspers MW, Koning CC, Oldenburger F, Langeveld NE, Hart AA, Bakker PJ, Caron HN, van Leeuwen FE. Medical assessment of adverse health outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. JAMA. 2007;297(24):2705–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hudson MM, Mulrooney DA, Bowers DC, Sklar CA, Green DM, Donaldson SS, Oeffinger KC, Neglia JP, Meadows AT, Robison LL. High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(14):2405–14.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hudson MM, Ness KK, Gurney JG, Mulrooney DA, Chemaitilly W, Krull KR, Green DM, Armstrong GT, Nottage KA, Jones KE, Sklar CA, Srivastava DK, Robison LL. Clinical ascertainment of health outcomes among adults treated for childhood cancer. JAMA. 2013;309(22):2371–81.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Institute NC. Common terminology criteria for adverse events, version 4.03. 2010. http://evs.nci.nih.gov/ftp1/CTCAE/CTCAE_4.03_2010-06-14_QuickReference_8.5x11.pdf. Accessed 10 Oct 2014.
- MacCarthy A, Bayne AM, Brownbill PA, Bunch KJ, Diggens NL, Draper GJ, Hawkins MM, Jenkinson HC, Kingston JE, Stiller CA, Vincent TJ, Murphy MF. Second and subsequent tumours among 1927 retinoblastoma patients diagnosed in Britain 1951-2004. Br J Cancer. 2013;108(12):2455–63.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Robison LL, Mertens AC, Boice JD, Breslow NE, Donaldson SS, Green DM, Li FP, Meadows AT, Mulvihill JJ, Neglia JP, Nesbit ME, Packer RJ, Potter JD, Sklar CA, Smith MA, Stovall M, Strong LC, Yasui Y, Zeltzer LK. Study design and cohort characteristics of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: a multi-institutional collaborative project. Med Pediatr Oncol. 2002;38(4):229–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rodjan F, Graaf P, Brisse HJ, Verbeke JI, Sanchez E, Galluzzi P, Goricke S, Maeder P, Aerts I, Dendale R, Desjardins L, de Franscesco S, Bornfeld N, Sauerwein W, Popovic MB, Knol DL, Moll AC, Castelijns JA. Second cranio-facial malignancies in hereditary retinoblastoma survivors previously treated with radiation therapy: clinic and radiologic characteristics and survival outcomes. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49(8):1939–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar