Long-Term Follow-Up of Retinoblastoma Survivors

Part of the Essentials in Ophthalmology book series (ESSENTIALS)


Over the past century, advances in the treatment of retinoblastoma have resulted in dramatically improved survival rates. As a result, increased attention has been given to the delineation, early identification, and treatment of survivors’ potential late effects of therapy, which may develop many years after initial treatment. While adverse oculo-visual outcomes and an increased risk of subsequent primary malignancies (in those with the genetic form of the disease) are well-documented, little is known about retinoblastoma survivors’ long-term general health and health status. The current chapter seeks to summarize the published data on retinoblastoma-specific late effects and highlight areas of inquiry which warrant further investigation. We begin by providing background on general childhood cancer survivorship and then survey the published literature on retinoblastoma-specific late medical outcomes, health-related quality of life, and cognitive outcomes. We also include data on extra-ocular retinoblastoma survivors’ late effect profiles as well as recent published data on the utility of whole body MRI screening in those with the genetic form of the disease. We conclude with clinical recommendations for the long-term care of retinoblastoma survivors.


Late effects Retinoblastoma Survivorship Whole body MRI Screening Childhood cancer survivors 


Compliance with Ethical Requirements

Danielle Novetsky Friedman declares that she has no conflict of interest.

All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being in the study.

No animal studies were carried out for this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PediatricsMemorial Sloan Kettering Cancer CenterNew YorkUSA

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