The Placenta and Umbilical Cord

  • T. Yee KhongEmail author


The placenta and extraplacental membranes are an apposition of fetal and maternal tissues for the purposes of physiological exchange. Its examination is imperative in cases of fetal and neonatal deaths, of sick and premature neonates, and of some maternal complications of pregnancy and has assumed an important role in obstetric litigation, commonly when there is perinatal death, fetal distress, or alleged cerebral hypoxia.

A systematic topographical approach to its examination is often productive. This chapter provides a description of the development of the placenta and of macroscopic and microscopic findings. Findings can be arbitrarily classified as being maternal vascular, intervillous vascular, fetal vascular, inflammation, and parenchymal disorders. These findings are contextual and clinical correlation is important before significance is ascribed to any findings. Similarly, the clinical context may provide clues to look for lesions that cluster with some clinical conditions. The clinicopathological correlation of common pathological and clinical scenarios is presented.


Maternal disease Fetal abnormalities Intrauterine death Clinicopathological correlation Development Uteroplacental vascular disease Fetal vasculopathy Placental inflammation Villitis 


  1. 1.
    Benirschke K, Burton GJ, Baergen RN. Pathology of the human placenta. 6th ed. New York: Springer; 2012.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Faye-Petersen OM, Heller DS, Joshi VV. Handbook of placental pathology. 2nd ed. London: Taylor and Francis; 2006.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fox H, Sebire NJ. Pathology of the placenta. 3rd ed. London: Saunders Elsevier; 2007.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kraus FT, Redline RW, Gersell DJ, Nelson DM, Dicke JM. Placental pathology. Washington, DC: American Registry of Pathology; 2004.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kraus FT. Perinatal pathology, the placenta, and litigation. Hum Pathol. 2003;34:517–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Langston C, Kaplan C, Macpherson T, Manci E, Peevy K, Clark B, et al. Practice guideline for examination of the placenta: developed by the placental pathology practice guideline development task force of the College of American Pathologists. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1997;121:449–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kent AL, Dahlstrom JE. Placental assessment: simple techniques to enhance best practice. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;46:32–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Spencer MK, Khong TY. Conformity to guidelines for pathologic examination of the placenta. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2003;127:205–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Baldwin VJ. Pathology of multiple pregnancy. New York: Springer; 1994.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacGillivray I, Nylander PPS, Corney G. Human multiple reproduction. London: W.B. Saunders; 1975.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Strong SJ, Corney G. The placenta in twin pregnancy. Oxford: Pergamon; 1967.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boyd PA. Quantitative structure of the normal human placenta from 10 weeks of gestation to term. Early Hum Dev. 1984;9:297–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mayhew TM, Burton GJ. Methodological problems in placental morphometry: apologia for the use of stereology based on sound sampling practice. Placenta. 1988;9:565–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pijnenborg R, Bland JM, Robertson WB, Dixon G, Brosens I. The pattern of interstitial trophoblastic invasion of the myometrium in early human pregnancy. Placenta. 1981;2:303–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Burton GJ, Jauniaux E, Watson AL. Maternal arterial connections to the placental intervillous space during the first trimester of human pregnancy: the Boyd collection revisited. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;181:718–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khong TY, Sawyer IH, Heryet AR. An immunohistologic study of endothelialization of uteroplacental vessels in human pregnancy – evidence that endothelium is focally disrupted by trophoblast in preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992;167:751–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wu S, Kocherginsky M, Hibbard JU. Abnormal placentation: twenty-year analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:1458–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Khong TY, Robertson WB. Placenta accreta and placenta previa creta. Placenta. 1987;8:399–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Khong TY, Werger AC. Myometrial fibers in the placental basal plate can confirm but do not necessarily indicate clinical placenta accreta. Am J Clin Pathol. 2001;116:703–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gielchinsky Y, Mankuta D, Rojansky N, Laufer N, Gielchinsky I, Ezra Y. Perinatal outcome of pregnancies complicated by placenta accreta. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;104:527–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mills JL, Harley EE, Moessinger AC. Standards for measuring umbilical cord length. Placenta. 1983;4:423–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Naeye RL. Umbilical cord length: clinical significance. J Pediatr. 1985;107:278–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Downey A, Hore K, McAuliffe FM, Mooney E. Umbilical cord shortening: quantification post-delivery and post-fixation. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2014;17:327–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moessinger AC, Blanc WA, Marone PA, Polsen DC. Umbilical cord length as an index of fetal activity: experimental study and clinical implications. Pediatr Res. 1982;16:109–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Krakowiak P, Smith EN, de Bruyn G, Lydon-Rochelle MT. Risk factors and outcomes associated with a short umbilical cord. Obstet Gynecol. 2004;103:119–27.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Georgiadis L, Keski-Nisula L, Harju M, Raisanen S, Georgiadis S, Hannila ML, et al. Umbilical cord length in singleton gestations: a Finnish population-based retrospective register study. Placenta. 2014;35:275–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baergen RN, Malicki D, Behling C, Benirschke K. Morbidity, mortality, and placental pathology in excessively long umbilical cords: retrospective study. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2001;4:144–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Berg TG, Rayburn WF. Umbilical cord length and acid-base balance at delivery. J Reprod Med. 1995;40:9–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lilja M. Infants with single umbilical artery studied in a national registry. General epidemiological characteristics. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1991;5:27–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fujikura T. Fused umbilical arteries near placental cord insertion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;188:765–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lilja M. Infants with single umbilical artery studied in a national registry. 2: survival and malformations in infants with single umbilical artery. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1992;6:416–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Voskamp BJ, Fleurke-Rozema H, Oude-Rengerink K, Snijders RJ, Bilardo CM, Mol BW, et al. Relationship of isolated single umbilical artery to fetal growth, aneuploidy and perinatal mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013;42:622–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Khong TY, George K. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with a single umbilical artery. Prenat Diagn. 1992;12:965–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Robert JA, Sepulveda W. Fetal exsanguination from ruptured vasa previa: still a catastrophic event in modern obstetrics. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2003;23:574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Quek SP, Tan KL. Vasa praevia. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1972;12:206–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ebbing C, Kiserud T, Johnsen SL, Albrechtsen S, Rasmussen S. Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes of velamentous and marginal cord insertions: a population-based study of 634,741 pregnancies. PLoS One. 2013;8:e70380.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Blickstein I, Shoham-Schwartz Z, Lancet M. Predisposing factors in the formation of true knots of the umbilical cord – analysis of morphometric and perinatal data. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1987;25:395–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Matorras R, Diez J, Pereira JG. True knots in the umbilical cord: clinical findings and fetal consequences. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1990;10:383–6.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Maher JT, Conti JA. A comparison of umbilical cord blood gas values between newborns with and without true knots. Obstet Gynecol. 1996;88:863–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hershkovitz R, Silberstein T, Sheiner E, Shoham-Vardi I, Holcberg G, Katz M, et al. Risk factors associated with true knots of the umbilical cord. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2001;98:36–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Airas U, Heinonen S. Clinical significance of true umbilical knots: a population-based analysis. Am J Perinatol. 2002;19:127–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chasnoff IJ, Fletcher MA. True knot of the umbilical cord. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1977;127:425–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Clapp 3rd JF, Stepanchak W, Hashimoto K, Ehrenberg H, Lopez B. The natural history of antenatal nuchal cords. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003;189:488–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Carey JC, Rayburn WF. Nuchal cord encirclements and birth weight. J Reprod Med. 2003;48:460–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Henry E, Andres RL, Christensen RD. Neonatal outcomes following a tight nuchal cord. J Perinatol. 2013;33:231–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Spellacy WN, Gravem H, Fisch RO. The umbilical cord complications of true knots, nuchal coils, and cords around the body. Report from the collaborative study of cerebral palsy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1966;94:1136–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hankins GDV, Snyder RR, Hauth JC, Gilstrap 3rd LC, Hammond T. Nuchal cords and neonatal outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 1987;70:687–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Osak R, Webster KM, Bocking AD, Campbell MK, Richardson BS. Nuchal cord evident at birth impacts on fetal size relative to that of the placenta. Early Hum Dev. 1997;49:193–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schaffer L, Burkhardt T, Zimmermann R, Kurmanavicius J. Nuchal cords in term and postterm deliveries – do we need to know? Obstet Gynecol. 2005;106:23–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Blickstein I, Varon Y, Varon E. Implications of differences in coiling indices at different segments of the umbilical cord. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2001;52:203–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    van Diik CC, Franx A, de Laat MW, Bruinse HW, Visser GH, Nikkels PG. The umbilical coiling index in normal pregnancy. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2002;11:280–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Khong TY. Evidence-based pathology: umbilical cord coiling. Pathology. 2010;42:618–22.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    de Laat MWM, van Alderen ED, Franx A, Visser GHA, Bots ML, Nikkels PGJ. The umbilical coiling index in complicated pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2007;130:66–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jessop FA, Lees CC, Pathak S, Hook CE, Sebire NJ. Umbilical cord coiling: clinical outcomes in an unselected population and systematic review. Virchows Arch Int J Pathol. 2014;464:105–12.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Labarrere C, Sebastiani M, Siminovich M, Torassa E, Althabe O. Absence of Wharton’s jelly around the umbilical arteries: an unusual cause of perinatal mortality. Placenta. 1985;6:555–9.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zangen R, Boldes R, Yaffe H, Schwed P, Weiner Z. Umbilical cord cysts in the second and third trimesters: significance and prenatal approach. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2010;36:296–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Heifetz SA. Thrombosis of the umbilical cord: analysis of 52 cases and literature review. Pediatr Pathol. 1988;8:37–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Bendon RW, Tyson RW, Baldwin VJ, Cashner KA, Mimouni F, Miodovnik M. Umbilical cord ulceration and intestinal atresia: a new association? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1991;164:582–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Khong TY, Ford WD, Haan EA. Umbilical cord ulceration in association with intestinal atresia in a child with deletion 13q and hirschsprung’s disease. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 1994;71:F212–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ohyama M, Itani Y, Yamanaka M, Imaizumi K, Nishi T, Ijiri R, et al. Umbilical cord ulcer: a serious in utero complication of intestinal atresia. Placenta. 2000;21:432–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ohyama M, Itani Y, Ishikawa H, Tanaka Y. Is umbilical cord ulcer associated with congenital upper intestinal atresia so rare? Japanese case series and review of the literature. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2010;28:236–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Altshuler G, Arizawa M, Molnar-Nadasdy G. Meconium-induced umbilical cord vascular necrosis and ulceration: a potential link between the placenta and poor pregnancy outcome. Obstet Gynecol. 1992;79:760–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Qureshi F, Jacques SM. Marked segmental thinning of the umbilical cord vessels. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1994;118:826–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Khong TY, Dilly SA. Calcification of umbilical artery: two distinct lesions. J Clin Pathol. 1989;42:931–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Caldarella A, Buccoliero AM, Taddei A, Savino L, Taddei GL. Hemangioma of the umbilical cord: report of a case. Pathol Res Pract. 2003;199:51–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sondergaard G. Hemangioma of the umbilical cord. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1994;73:434–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sepulveda W, Corral E, Kottmann C, Illanes S, Vasquez P, Monckeberg MJ. Umbilical artery aneurysm: prenatal identification in three fetuses with trisomy 18. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2003;21:292–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bendon RW, Ray MB. The pathologic findings of the fetal membranes in very prolonged amniotic fluid leakage. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1986;110:47–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Houlihan CM, Knuppel RA. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Current controversies. J Reprod Med. 1994;39:888–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Altshuler G, Hyde S. Meconium-induced vasocontraction: a potential cause of cerebral and other fetal hypoperfusion and of poor pregnancy outcome. J Child Neurol. 1989;4:137–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Miller PW, Coen RW, Benirschke K. Dating the time interval from meconium passage to birth. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;66:459–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jauniaux E, Hempstock J, Greenwold N, Burton GJ. Trophoblastic oxidative stress in relation to temporal and regional differences in maternal placental blood flow in normal and abnormal early pregnancies. Am J Pathol. 2003;162:115–25.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Khong TY, De Wolf F, Robertson WB, Brosens I. Inadequate maternal vascular response to placentation in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and by small-for-gestational age infants. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986;93:1049–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Khong TY, Chambers HM. Alternative method of sampling placentas for the assessment of uteroplacental vasculature. J Clin Pathol. 1992;45:925–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Khong TY, Pearce JM, Robertson WB. Acute atherosis in preeclampsia: maternal determinants and fetal outcome in the presence of the lesion. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1987;157:360–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Labarrere CA. Acute atherosis. A histopathological hallmark of immune aggression? Placenta. 1988;9:95–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Khong TY. Acute atherosis in pregnancies complicated by hypertension, small-for-gestational-age infants, and diabetes mellitus. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1991;115:722–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Walford N, Htun K, Akhilesh M. Detection of atherosis in preeclamptic placentas: comparison of two gross sampling protocols. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005;8:61–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Meekins JW, Pijnenborg R, Hanssens M, van Assche A, McFadyen IR. Immunohistochemical detection of lipoprotein(a) in the wall of placental bed spiral arteries in normal and severe preeclamptic pregnancies. Placenta. 1994;15:511–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dommisse J, Tiltman AJ. Placental bed biopsies in placental abruption. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1992;99:651–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mooney EE, al Shunnar A, O’Regan M, Gillan JE. Chorionic villous haemorrhage is associated with retroplacental haemorrhage. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994;101:965–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Harris Jr BA, Gore H, Flowers Jr CE. Peripheral placental separation: a possible relationship to premature labor. Obstet Gynecol. 1985;66:774–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ananth CV, Oyelese Y, Yeo L, Pradhan A, Vintzileos AM. Placental abruption in the united states, 1979 through 2001: temporal trends and potential determinants. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;192:191–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Salihu HM, Bekan B, Aliyu MH, Rouse DJ, Kirby RS, Alexander GR. Perinatal mortality associated with abruptio placenta in singletons and multiples. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005;193:198–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Goldenberg RL, Faye-Petersen O, Andrews WW, Goepfert AR, Cliver SP, Hauth JC. The Alabama preterm birth study: diffuse decidual leukocytoclastic necrosis of the decidua basalis, a placental lesion associated with preeclampsia, indicated preterm birth and decreased fetal growth. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007;20:391–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stanek J, Al-Ahmadie HA. Laminar necrosis of placental membranes: a histologic sign of uteroplacental hypoxia. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2005;8:34–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bendon RW, Coventry SC, Reed RC. Reassessing the clinical significance of chorionic membrane microcysts and linear necrosis. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2012;15:213–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Kos M, Czernobilsky B, Hlupic L, Kunjko K. Pathological changes in placentas from pregnancies with preeclampsia and eclampsia with emphasis on persistence of endovascular trophoblastic plugs. Croat Med J. 2005;46:404–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Redline RW, Patterson P. Pre-eclampsia is associated with an excess of proliferative immature intermediate trophoblast. Hum Pathol. 1995;26:594–600.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ogino S, Redline RW. Villous capillary lesions of the placenta: distinctions between chorangioma, chorangiomatosis, and chorangiosis. Hum Pathol. 2000;31:945–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Soma H, Murai N, Tanaka K, Oguro T, Kokuba H, Fujita K, et al. Angiogenesis in villous chorangiosis observed by ultrastructural studies. Med Mol Morphol. 2013;46:77–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chorangiosis AG. An important placental sign of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1984;108:71–4.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Morgan TK, Tolosa JE, Mele L, Wapner RJ, Spong CY, Sorokin Y, et al. Placental villous hypermaturation is associated with idiopathic preterm birth. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2013;26:647–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fogarty NME, Ferguson-Smith AC, Burton GJ. Syncytial knots (Tenney-Parker) changes in the human placenta. Am J Pathol. 2013;183:144–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Khong TY, Staples A, Bendon RW, Chambers HM, Gould SJ, Knowles S, et al. Observer reliability in assessing placental maturity by histology. J Clin Pathol. 1995;48:420–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Humphrey RG, Smith SD, Pang L, Sadovsky Y, Nelson DM. Fibrin enhances differentiation, but not apoptosis, and limits hypoxic injury of cultured term human trophoblasts. Placenta. 2005;26:491–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Redline RW, Boyd T, Campbell V, Hyde S, Kaplan C, Khong TY, et al. Maternal vascular underperfusion: nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004;7:237–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bryant C, Beall M, McPhaul L, Fortson W, Ross M. Do placental sections accurately reflect umbilical cord nucleated red blood cell and white blood cell differential counts? J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2006;19:105–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Pearlstone M, Baxi L, Baxi LV, Pearlstone MM. Subchorionic hematoma: a review. Obstet Gynecol Surv. 1993;48:65–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Becroft DM, Thompson JM, Mitchell EA. Placental infarcts, intervillous fibrin plaques, and intervillous thrombi: incidences, cooccurrences, and epidemiological associations. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004;7:26–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Katzman PJ, Genest DR. Maternal floor infarction and massive perivillous fibrin deposition: histological definitions, association with intrauterine fetal growth restriction, and risk of recurrence. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2002;5:159–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Khong TY. What’s in fibrin? Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2002;5:106–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Griffin AC, Strauss AW, Bennett MJ, Ernst LM. Mutations in long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl coenzyme a dehydrogenase are associated with placental maternal floor infarction/massive perivillous fibrin deposition. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2012;15:368–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Romero R, Whitten A, Korzeniewski SJ, Than NG, Chaemsaithong P, Miranda J, et al. Maternal floor infarction/massive perivillous fibrin deposition: a manifestation of maternal antifetal rejection? Am J Reprod Immunol. 2013;70:285–98.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Whitten AE, Romero R, Korzeniewski SJ, Tarca AL, Schwartz AG, Yeo L, et al. Evidence of an imbalance of angiogenic/antiangiogenic factors in massive perivillous fibrin deposition (maternal floor infarction): a placental lesion associated with recurrent miscarriage and fetal death. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013;208:310.e1. e11.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    McDermott M, Gillan JE. Trophoblast basement membrane haemosiderosis in the placental lesion of fetal artery thrombosis: a marker for disturbance of maternofetal transfer? Placenta. 1995;16:171–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Kraus FT, Acheen VI. Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy in the placenta: cerebral thrombi and infarcts, coagulopathies, and cerebral palsy. Hum Pathol. 1999;30:759–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Redline RW, Pappin A. Fetal thrombotic vasculopathy: the clinical significance of extensive avascular villi. Hum Pathol. 1995;26:80–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Redline RW, Ariel I, Baergen RN, Desa DJ, Kraus FT, Roberts DJ, et al. Fetal vascular obstructive lesions: nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2004;7:443–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Sander CH, Kinnane L, Stevens NG, Echt R. Haemorrhagic endovasculitis of the placenta: a review with clinical correlation. Placenta. 1986;7:551–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sander CM, Gilliland D, Richardson A, Foley KM, Fredericks J. Stillbirths with placental hemorrhagic endovasculitis: a morphologic assessment with clinical implications. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005;129:632–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Ariel I, Anteby E, Hamani Y, Redline RW. Placental pathology in fetal thrombophilia. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:729–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Beeksma FA, Erwich JJ, Khong TY. Placental fetal vascular thrombosis lesions and maternal thrombophilia. Pathology. 2012;44:24–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Redline RW. Clinical and pathological umbilical cord abnormalities in fetal thrombotic vasculopathy. Hum Pathol. 2004;35:1494–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Khong TY, George K. Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein levels in chorioangiomas. Am J Perinatol. 1994;11:245–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Khong TY. Chorangioma with trophoblastic proliferation. Virchows Arch Int J Pathol. 2000;436:167–71.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jauniaux E, Zucker M, Meuris S, Verhest A, Wilkin P, Hustin J. Chorangiocarcinoma: an unusual tumour of the placenta. The missing link? Placenta. 1988;9:607–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Tominaga T, Page EW. Accommodation of the human placenta to hypoxia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1966;94:679–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wigglesworth JS. Vascular anatomy of the human placenta and its significance for placental pathology. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1969;76:979–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Fox H. Villous immaturity in the term placenta. Obstet Gynecol. 1968;31:9–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Stallmach T, Hebisch G, Meier K, Dudenhausen JW, Vogel M. Rescue by birth: defective placental maturation and late fetal mortality. Obstet Gynecol. 2001;97:505–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cooley SM, Donnelly JC, Walsh T, Kirkham C, Gillan J, Geary MP. Ponderal index (PI) vs birth weight centiles in the low-risk primigravid population: Which is the better predictor of fetal wellbeing? J Obstet Gynaecol. 2012;32:439–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Higgins M, McAuliffe FM, Mooney EE. Clinical associations with a placental diagnosis of delayed villous maturation: a retrospective study. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2011;14:273–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Evers IM, Nikkels PG, Sikkema JM, Visser GH. Placental pathology in women with type 1 diabetes and in a control group with normal and large-for-gestational-age infants. Placenta. 2003;24:819–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Korteweg FJ, Erwich JJ, Holm JP, Ravise JM, van der Meer J, Veeger NJ, et al. Diverse placental pathologies as the main causes of fetal death. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;114:809–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Shen-Schwarz S, Ruchelli E, Brown D. Villous oedema of the placenta: a clinicopathological study. Placenta. 1989;10:297–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Naeye RL, Maisels MJ, Lorenz RP, Botti JJ. The clinical significance of placental villous edema. Pediatrics. 1983;71:588–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Redline RW, Faye-Petersen O, Heller D, Qureshi F, Savell V, Vogler C, et al. Amniotic infection syndrome: nosology and reproducibility of placental reaction patterns. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2003;6:435–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Machin G. Funisitis and chorionic vasculitis: relation to chorioamnionitis, timing and scoring. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2011;30:414–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Khong TY, Frappell JM, Steel HM, Stewart CM, Burke M. Perinatal listeriosis. A report of six cases. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986;93:1083–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Qureshi F, Jacques SM, Bendon RW, Faye-Peterson OM, Heifetz SA, Redline R, et al. Candida funisitis: a clinicopathologic study of 32 cases. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 1998;1:118–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bendon RW, Bornstein S, Faye-Petersen OM. Two fetal deaths associated with maternal sepsis and with thrombosis of the intervillous space of the placenta. Placenta. 1998;19:385–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Smulian JC, Shen-Schwarz S, Vintzileos AM, Lake MF, Ananth CV. Clinical chorioamnionitis and histologic placental inflammation. Obstet Gynecol. 1999;94:1000–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hillier SL, Martius J, Krohn M, Kiviat N, Holmes KK, Eschenbach DA. A case-control study of chorioamnionic infection and histologic chorioamnionitis in prematurity. N Engl J Med. 1988;319:972–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Zaaijman JT, Wilkinson AR, Keeling JW, Mitchell RG, Turnbull AC. Spontaneous premature rupture of the membranes: bacteriology, histology and neonatal outcome. J Obstet Gynaecol. 1982;2:155–60.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Zhang JM, Kraus FT, Aquino TI. Chorioamnionitis: a comparative histologic, bacteriologic, and clinical study. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1985;4:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Onderdonk AB, Delaney ML, DuBois AM, Allred EN, Leviton A. Detection of bacteria in placental tissues obtained from extremely low gestational age neonates. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2008;198:110.e111–7.Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Roberts DJ, Celi AC, Riley LE, Onderdonk AB, Boyd TK, Johnson LC, et al. Acute histologic chorioamnionitis at term: nearly always noninfectious. PLoS One. 2012;7:e31819.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Wu YW, Colford Jr JM. Chorioamnionitis as a risk factor for cerebral palsy. JAMA. 2000;284:1417–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Jones MH, Corso AL, Tepper RS, Edelweiss MI, Friedrich L, Pitrez PM, et al. Chorioamnionitis and subsequent lung function in preterm infants. PLoS One. 2013;8:e81193.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Chen ML, Allred EN, Hecht JL, Onderdonk A, VanderVeen D, Wallace DK, et al. Placenta microbiology and histology and the risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7052–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Been JV, Lievense S, Zimmermann LJ, Kramer BW, Wolfs TG. Chorioamnionitis as a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Pediatr. 2013;162:236–42.e2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Redline RW. Inflammatory responses in the placenta and umbilical cord. Sem Fetal Neonat Med. 2006;11:296–301.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tamblyn JA, Lissauer DM, Powell R, Cox P, Kilby MD. The immunological basis of villitis of unknown etiology – review. Placenta. 2013;34:846–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Gundogan F, Bianchi DW, Scherjon SA, Roberts DJ. Placental pathology in egg donor pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:397–404.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Derricott H, Jones RL, Heazell AE. Investigating the association of villitis of unknown etiology with stillbirth and fetal growth restriction – a systematic review. Placenta. 2013;34:856–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Edmondson N, Bocking A, Machin G, Rizek R, Watson C, Keating S. The prevalence of chronic deciduitis in cases of preterm labor without clinical chorioamnionitis. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2009;12:16–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Naeye RL. Disorders of the placenta, fetus, and neonate: diagnosis and clinical significance. St Louis: Mosby; 1992.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Gersell DJ, Phillips NJ, Beckerman K. Chronic chorioamnionitis: a clinicopathologic study of 17 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1991;10:217–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Jacques SM, Qureshi F. Chronic chorioamnionitis: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Hum Pathol. 1998;29:1457–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kim CJ, Romero R, Kusanovic JP, Yoo W, Dong Z, Topping V, et al. The frequency, clinical significance, and pathological features of chronic chorioamnionitis: a lesion associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Mod Pathol. 2010;23:1000–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Lee J, Kim JS, Park JW, Park CW, Park JS, Jun JK, et al. Chronic chorioamnionitis is the most common placental lesion in late preterm birth. Placenta. 2013;34:681–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Boyd TK, Redline RW. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis: a placental lesion associated with recurrent reproductive loss. Hum Pathol. 2000;31:1389–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Marchaudon V, Devisme L, Petit S, Ansart-Franquet H, Vaast P, Subtil D. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis of unknown etiology: clinical features in a consecutive series of 69 cases. Placenta. 2011;32:140–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Mekinian A, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Masseau A, Botta A, Chudzinski A, Theulin A, et al. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis: outcome, associated diseases and treatment in a multicenter prospective study. Autoimmunity. 2015;48:40–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Contro E, deSouza R, Bhide A. Chronic intervillositis of the placenta: a systematic review. Placenta. 2010;31:1106–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Fraser RB, Wright Jr JR. Eosinophilic/t-cell chorionic vasculitis. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2002;5:350–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Katzman PJ, Oble DA. Eosinophilic/t-cell chorionic vasculitis and chronic villitis involve regulatory t cells and often occur together. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2013;16:278–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Cheek B, Heinrich S, Ward K, Craver R. Eosinophilic/t-cell chorionic vasculitis: histological and clinical correlations. Fetal Pediatr Pathol. 2015;34:73–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Pridmore BR, Khong TY, Wells WA. Ultrasound placental cysts associated with massive placental stem villous hydrops, diploid DNA content, and exomphalos. Am J Perinatol. 1994;11:14–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kaiser-Rogers KA, McFadden DE, Livasy CA, Dansereau J, Jiang R, Knops JF, et al. Androgenetic/biparental mosaicism causes placental mesenchymal dysplasia. J Med Genet. 2006;43:187–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Naeye RL. The clinical significance of absent subchorionic fibrin in the placenta. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990;94:196–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ Task Force on Hypertension in Pregnancy. Hypertension in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2013;122:1122–31.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Nelson DB, Ziadie MS, McIntire DD, Rogers BB, Leveno KJ. Placental pathology suggesting that preeclampsia is more than one disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;210:66.e1. 7.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Stanek J, Biesiada J, Trzeszcz M. Clinicoplacental phenotypes vary with gestational age: an analysis by classical and clustering methods. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2014;93:392–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ogge G, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R, Hussein Y, Kusanovic JP, Yeo L, et al. Placental lesions associated with maternal underperfusion are more frequent in early-onset than in late-onset preeclampsia. J Perinat Med. 2011;39:641–52.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Devisme L, Merlot B, Ego A, Houfflin-Debarge V, Deruelle P, Subtil D. A case-control study of placental lesions associated with pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013;120:165–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Metzger BE, Lowe LP, Dyer AR, Trimble ER, Chaovarindr U, Coustan DR, et al. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:1991–2002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lowe LP, Metzger BE, Dyer AR, Lowe J, McCance DR, Lappin TR, et al. Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcome (HAPO) study: associations of maternal A1C and glucose with pregnancy outcomes. Diabetes Care. 2012;35:574–80.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Clarson C, Tevaarwerk GJ, Harding PGR, Chance GW, Haust MD. Placental weight in diabetic pregnancies. Placenta. 1989;10:275–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Beauharnais CC, Roberts DJ, Wexler DJ. High rate of placental infarcts in type 2 compared with type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E1160–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Khong TY. A topographical and clinical approach to examination of the placenta. Pathology. 2001;33:174–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Barth WH Jr, Genest DR, Riley LE, Frigoletto FD Jr, Benacerraf BR, Greene MF. Uterine arcuate artery Doppler and decidual microvascular pathology in pregnancies complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1996;8:98–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Boyd PA, Scott A, Keeling JW. Quantitative structural studies on placentas from pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1986;93:31–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Higgins M, Felle P, Mooney EE, Bannigan J, McAuliffe FM. Stereology of the placenta in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Placenta. 2011;32:564–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Flenady V, Middleton P, Smith GC, Duke W, Erwich JJ, Khong TY, et al. Stillbirths: the way forward in high-income countries. Lancet. 2011;377:1703–17.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Challier JC, Basu S, Bintein T, Minium J, Hotmire K, Catalano PM, et al. Obesity in pregnancy stimulates macrophage accumulation and inflammation in the placenta. Placenta. 2008;29:274–81.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Roberts KA, Riley SC, Reynolds RM, Barr S, Evans M, Statham A, et al. Placental structure and inflammation in pregnancies associated with obesity. Placenta. 2011;32:247–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Avagliano L, Marconi AM, Romagnoli S, Bulfamante GP. Abnormal spiral arteries modification in stillbirths: the role of maternal prepregnancy body mass index. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:2789–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Bar J, Schreiber L, Saruhanov E, Ben-Haroush A, Golan A, Kovo M. Placental histopathological findings in obese and nonobese women with complicated and uncomplicated pregnancies. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2012;286:1343–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Huang L, Liu J, Feng L, Chen Y, Zhang J, Wang W. Maternal prepregnancy obesity is associated with higher risk of placental pathological lesions. Placenta. 2014;35:563–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Costoya AL, Leontic EA, Rosenberg HG, Delgado MA. Morphological study of placental terminal villi in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: histochemistry, light and electron microscopy. Placenta. 1980;1:361–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wikström Shemer E, Thorsell M, Östlund E, Blomgren B, Marschall HU. Stereological assessment of placental morphology in intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Placenta. 2012;33:914–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Geenes VL, Lim YH, Bowman N, Tailor H, Dixon PH, Chambers J, et al. A placental phenotype for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Placenta. 2011;32:1026–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Van Horn JT, Craven C, Ward K, Branch DW, Silver RM. Histologic features of placentas and abortion specimens from women with antiphospholipid and antiphospholipid-like syndromes. Placenta. 2004;25:642–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Birkenfeld A, Mordel N, Okon E. Direct demonstration of iron in a term placenta in a case of beta-thalassemia major. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989;160:562–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Godfrey KM, Redman CWG, Barker DJP, Osmond C. The effect of maternal anaemia and iron deficiency on the ratio of fetal weight to placental weight. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1991;98:886–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Perry IJ, Beevers DG, Whincup PH, Bareford D. Predictors of ratio of placental weight to fetal weight in multiethnic community. BMJ. 1995;310:436–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Lao TT, Tam KF. Placental ratio and anemia in third-trimester pregnancy. J Reprod Med. 2000;45:923–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Goddijn-Wessel TAW, Wouters MGAJ, van de Molen EF, Spuijbroek MDEH, Steegers-Theunissen RPM, Blom HJ, et al. Hyperhomocysteinemia: a risk factor for placental abruption or infarction. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996;66:23–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Khong TY, Hague WM. The placenta in maternal hyperhomocysteinaemia. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1999;106:273–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Wang N, Tikellis G, Sun C, Pezic A, Wang L, Wells JCK, et al. The effect of maternal prenatal smoking and alcohol consumption on the placenta-to-birth weight ratio. Placenta. 2014;35:437–41.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Ackerman J, Gilbert-Barness E. Malignancy metastatic to the products of conception: a case report with literature review. Pediatr Pathol Lab Med. 1997;17:577–86.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Genest DR. Estimating the time of death in stillborn fetuses: Ii. Histologic evaluation of the placenta; a study of 71 stillborns. Obstet Gynecol. 1992;80:585–92.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Pinar H, Goldenberg RL, Koch MA, Heim-Hall J, Hawkins HK, Shehata B, et al. Placental findings in singleton stillbirths. Obstet Gynecol. 2014;123:325–36.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Warrander LK, Batra G, Bernatavicius G, Greenwood SL, Dutton P, Jones RL, et al. Maternal perception of reduced fetal movements is associated with altered placental structure and function. PLoS One. 2012;7:e34851.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Winje BA, Roald B, Kristensen NP, Frøen JF. Placental pathology in pregnancies with maternally perceived decreased fetal movement – a population-based nested case-cohort study. PLoS One. 2012;7:e39259.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Lake BD. Histopathological investigation of prenatal tissue samples (excluding skin). In: Reed GB, Claireaux AE, Cockburn F, editors. Diseases of the fetus and newborn. London: Chapman & Hall; 1995. p. 1089–97.Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Gruenwald P. The supply line of the fetus; definitions relating to fetal growth. In: Gruenwald P, editor. The placenta and its maternal supply line. Lancaster: MTP; 1975. p. 1–7.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Grati FR, Miozzo M, Cassani B, Rossella F, Antonazzo P, Gentilin B, et al. Fetal and placental chromosomal mosaicism revealed by qf-pcr in severe iugr pregnancies. Placenta. 2005;26:10–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Wolstenholme J, Rooney DE, Davison EV. Confined placental mosaicism, iugr, and adverse pregnancy outcome: a controlled retrospective U.K. Collaborative survey. Prenat Diagn. 1994;14:345–61.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Wilkins-Haug L, Roberts DJ, Morton CC. Confined placental mosaicism and intrauterine growth retardation: a case-control analysis of placentas at delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995;172:44–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Fox H. The incidence and significance of nucleated erythrocytes in the foetal vessels of the mature human placenta. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw. 1967;74:40–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Denmead DT, Ariagno RL, Carson SH, Benirschke KB. Placental pathology is not predictive for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Am J Perinatol. 1987;4:308–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Ansari T, Gillan JE, Condell D, Green CJ, Sibbons PD. Analyses of the potential oxygen transfer capability in placentae from infants succumbing to sudden infant death syndrome. Early Hum Dev. 2004;76:127–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Widdows K, O’Malley A, O’Neill B, Kingdom J, Gillan J, Ansari T. Altered placental development in pregnancies resulting in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Early Hum Dev. 2012;88:805–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Department of Obstetrics and GynaecologyUniversity of AdelaideNorth AdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Department of HistopathologyWomen’s & Children’s HospitalNorth AdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations