Similitude: Decentralised Adaptation in Large-Scale P2P Recommenders

  • Davide FreyEmail author
  • Anne-Marie Kermarrec
  • Christopher Maddock
  • Andreas Mauthe
  • Pierre-Louis Roman
  • François Taïani
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 9038)


Decentralised recommenders have been proposed to deliver privacy-preserving, personalised and highly scalable on-line recommendations. Current implementations tend, however, to rely on a hard-wired similarity metric that cannot adapt. This constitutes a strong limitation in the face of evolving needs. In this paper, we propose a framework to develop dynamically adaptive decentralised recommendation systems. Our proposal supports a decentralised form of adaptation, in which individual nodes can independently select, and update their own recommendation algorithm, while still collectively contributing to the overall system’s mission.


Distributed Computing Decentralised Systems Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Systems Adaptation 


  1. 1.
    Movielens 1 million ratings dataset,
  2. 2.
  3. 3.
    Bai, X., Bertier, M., Guerraoui, R., Kermarrec, A.-M., Leroy, V.: Gossiping personalized queries. In: EDBT 2010 (2010)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Baraglia, R., Dazzi, P., Mordacchini, M., Ricci, L.: A peer-to-peer recommender system for self-emerging user communities based on gossip overlays. J. of Comp. and Sys. Sciences (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bertier, M., Frey, D., Guerraoui, R., Kermarrec, A.-M., Leroy, V.: The gossple anonymous social network. In: Gupta, I., Mascolo, C. (eds.) Middleware 2010. LNCS, vol. 6452, pp. 191–211. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Boutet, A., Frey, D., Guerraoui, R., Jégou, A., Kermarrec, A.-M.: Privacy-Preserving Distributed Collaborative Filtering. In: Noubir, G., Raynal, M. (eds.) NETYS 2014. LNCS, vol. 8593, pp. 169–184. Springer, Heidelberg (2014)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Boutet, A., Frey, D., Guerraoui, R., Jégou, A., Kermarrec, A.-M.: WhatsUp Decentralized Instant News Recommender. In: IPDPS (2013)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Carretero, J., Isaila, F., Kermarrec, A.-M., Taïani, F., Tirado, J.M.: Geology: Modular georecommendation in gossip-based social networks. In: ICDCS 2012 (2012)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Das, A.S., Datar, M., Garg, A., Rajaram, S.: Google news personalization: scalable online collaborative filtering. In: WWW (2007)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Demers, A., Greene, D., Hauser, C., Irish, W., Larson, J., Shenker, S., Sturgis, H., Swinehart, D., Terry, D.: Epidemic Algorithms for Replicated Database Maintenance. In: PODC 1987 (1987)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Facebook Inc. Facebook: Company info – statistics (March 2014), (accessed: May 13, 2014)
  12. 12.
    Frey, D., Kermarrec, A.-M., Maddock, C., Mauthe, A., Taïani, F.: Adaptation for the masses: Towards decentralized adaptation in large-scale p2p recommenders. In: 13th Workshop on Adaptive & Reflective Middleware, ARM 2014 (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goldberg, D., Nichols, D., Oki, B.M., Terry, D.: Using collaborative filtering to weave an information tapestry. In: CACM (1992)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Han, P., Xie, B., Yang, F., Shen, R.: A scalable p2p recommender system based on distributed collaborative filtering. Expert Systems with Applications (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hegedus, I., Ormándi, R., Jelasity, M.: Gossip-based learning under drifting concepts in fully distributed networks. In: SASO 2012 (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jelasity, M., Montresor, A., Babaoglu, O.: T-man: Gossip-based fast overlay topology construction. Computer Networks 53(13), 2321–2339 (2009)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Jelasity, M., Voulgaris, S., Guerraoui, R., Kermarrec, A.-M., van Steen, M.: Gossip-based peer sampling. In: ACM TOCS, vol. 25 (2007)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kermarrec, A.-M., Leroy, V., Moin, A., Thraves, C.: Application of random walks to decentralized recommender systems. In: Lu, C., Masuzawa, T., Mosbah, M. (eds.) OPODIS 2010. LNCS, vol. 6490, pp. 48–63. Springer, Heidelberg (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kermarrec, A.-M., Taïani, F.: Diverging towards the common good: heterogeneous self-organisation in decentralised recommenders. In: SNS 2012 (2012)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Konstan, J.A., Miller, B.N., Maltz, D., Herlocker, J.L., Gordon, L.R., Riedl, J.: Grouplens: Applying collaborative filtering to usenet news. In: CACM (1997)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Leroy, V., Cambazoglu, B.B., Bonchi, F.: Cold start link prediction. In: KDD 2010 (2010)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Linden, G., Smith, B., York, J.: Amazon. com recommendations: Item-to-item collaborative filtering. IEEE Internet Computing (2003)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mega, G., Montresor, A., Picco, G.P.: Efficient dissemination in decentralized social networks. In: IEEE P2P 2011 (2011)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Miller, B.N., Konstan, J.A., Riedl, J.: Pocketlens: Toward a personal recommender system. In: TOIS (2004)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moreno, A., Castro, H., Riveill, M.: Decentralized recommender systems for mobile advertisement. In: Workshop on Personalization in Mobile Applications (PEMA 2011). ACM, New York (2011)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Olsson, T.: Decentralised social filtering based on trust. In: AAAI 1998 Recommender Systems Workshop (1998)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schiavoni, V., Rivière, E., Felber, P.: Whisper: Middleware for confidential communication in large-scale networks. In: ICDCS 2011 (June 2011)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Song, Y., Dixon, S., Pearce, M.: A survey of music recommendation systems and future perspectives. In: CMMR 2012 (2012)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tirado, J.M., Higuero, D., Isaila, F., Carretero, J., Iamnitchi, A.: Affinity p2p: A self-organizing content-based locality-aware collaborative peer-to-peer network. Comp. Net. 54 (2010)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Voulgaris, S., van Steen, M.: Epidemic-style management of semantic overlays for content-based searching. In: Cunha, J.C., Medeiros, P.D. (eds.) Euro-Par 2005. LNCS, vol. 3648, pp. 1143–1152. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yeung, C.-M.A., Liccardi, I., Lu, K., Seneviratne, O., Berners-Lee, T.: Decentralization: The future of online social networking. In: W3C Workshop on the Future of Social Networking (2009)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Davide Frey
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anne-Marie Kermarrec
    • 1
  • Christopher Maddock
    • 2
  • Andreas Mauthe
    • 2
  • Pierre-Louis Roman
    • 3
  • François Taïani
    • 3
  1. 1.InriaRennesFrance
  2. 2.School of Computing and CommunicationsLancaster UniversityLancasterUK
  3. 3.Université de Rennes 1, IRISA - ESIRRennesFrance

Personalised recommendations